94 (P< 0001), meaning that it accounted for 88% (0 942) of the va

94 (P<.0001), meaning that it accounted for 88% (0.942) of the variation between

observers in the overall assessment of endoscopic activity. 32 The term friability invariably needs explanation. The UCEIS dispensed with the term mucosal friability, because the model including friability as a descriptor Idelalisib in vitro did not perform significantly better than one including bleeding. In practical terms, the most severely affected part of the mucosa is scored. There are, however, still limitations; thresholds for remission and mild, moderate, and severe disease have yet to be set. The extent to which full colonoscopy may influence the score compared with the flexible sigmoidoscopy on which it was based, has only started to be evaluated.37

Knowledge of symptoms does not materially influence the score, and a comparison with the Mayo Clinic endoscopy subscore shows that the UCEIS is less subject to variation by a central reader.38 Nevertheless, the UCEIS is simple enough to use in clinical practice and should achieve its goal of reducing variation in endoscopic assessment of activity between observers. Clinicians are beginning to use CFTR activator the UCEIS in clinical practice, and a preliminary study in patients admitted with acute severe colitis shows that a score of 7 or 8 (out of 8) on admission predicted an inadequate response to intravenous steroids and the need for rescue therapy with cyclosporine or infliximab.39 The UCEIS is now being used in clinical trials of UC that are in progress. There are validated endoscopic indices for the assessment of Crohn’s disease activity (Table 4).

The CDEIS is the standard, whereas the SES-CD is a simplified version. The Rutgeerts Postoperative Endoscopic Index is used for estimating the risk Anacetrapib of recurrence after ileocolic resection for Crohn’s disease. The CDEIS40 is a prospectively developed instrument constructed to detect changes in disease activity and examines 4 endoscopic variables (deep ulceration, superficial ulceration, length of ulcerated mucosa, and length of diseased mucosa) in each of the following locations: rectum, sigmoid and left colon, transverse colon, and right colon and ileum (Table 5). The total score is then divided by the number of locations explored (1–5). An additional 3 points is given if an ulcerated stenosis is present, and a further 3 points if a nonulcerated stenosis is present. CDEIS scores range from 0 to 44. • Deep ulcerations: score 0 if absent or 12 if present Although CDEIS is the standard index and is reproducible, it is also complex. It requires training and experience, especially for estimating ulcerated or diseased mucosal surfaces and distinguishing between superficial and deep ulceration. It is cumbersome to use in clinical practice. The CDEIS has appropriate sensitivity to measure changes in the mucosal appearance.

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