, 2009) The sensitivity of bound and free κ and λ LC antisera in

The sensitivity of bound and free κ and λ LC antisera in serum was approximately 100 mg/L (representative images not shown). All statistical analyses were conducted using PASW Statistics Version 18 (IBM, USA) with the exception of assay linearity, batch-to-batch variability and mAb correlations with Freelite™, which were assessed using the Microsoft Excel Add-in Analyse-it (version 2.26, www.analyse-it.com). Spearman correlations were ranked as ‘good’ between 0.75 and 0.90, and ‘excellent’ above 0.90. Olaparib manufacturer All figures were produced using

SigmaPlot version 11.0 (Systat Software Inc., USA). 250 plasma samples from healthy donors were analysed for κ and λ FLCs using the mAb assay and a comparison was made between each of the anti-FLC mAbs, and to Freelite™. All samples were pre-screened for paraproteins by routine serum IFE analysis. IFE revealed that one sample had an IgG λ paraprotein with λ FLC, and the sample was excluded from further analyses; both the mAb assay and Freelite™ assays identified elevated λ FLC and an abnormal κ:λ FLC

ratio in this sample. This finding accords with expected prevalence of MGUS in the general population (Kyle et al., 2006). Reference ranges for each anti-FLC mAb were similar to Freelite™ for the remaining 249 samples (Fig. 2). The two anti-κ mAbs also had similar reference ranges to each other, with BUCIS 04 having a slightly broader reference range than BUCIS 01 (BUCIS 01: 6.46–15.10 mg/L; BUCIS 04: 4.35–19.44 mg/L). The two anti-λ mAbs http://www.selleckchem.com/products/ABT-263.html were also similar, with BUCIS 03 having a slightly broader reference range than BUCIS 09 (BUCIS 03: 4.13–19.18 mg/L; BUCIS 09: 5.19–18.87 mg/L). In terms of the κ:λ ratio, the mAb assay had a similar range to Freelite™ (mAb

assay: 0.40–1.59; Freelite™: 0.58–1.76). Chlormezanone 1000 consecutive serum samples, selected as they arrived in the CIS for routine serum FLC analysis, were analysed using the mAb assay and Freelite™ (Fig. 4). Overall, each anti-FLC mAb showed good or excellent Spearman correlations with Freelite™: anti-κ BUCIS 01 (R2 = 0.79, 95% CI 0.76–0.81), anti-κ BUCIS 04 (R2 = 0.92, 95% CI 0.91–0.93), anti-λ BUCIS 03 (R2 = 0.87, 95% CI 0.85–0.88) and anti-λ BUCIS 09 (R2 = 0.85, 95% CI 0.84–0.87). Compared to each other, BUCIS 01 and BUCIS 04 mAbs provided a good correlation for κ FLC (R2 = 0.78, 95% CI 0.76–0.80) and BUCIS 03 and BUCIS 09 mAbs provided an excellent correlation for λ FLC (R2 = 0.97, 95% CI 0.97–0.98). In terms of the κ:λ ratio ( Fig. 5), both Freelite™ and the mAb assay demonstrated a good correlation (R2 = 0.85, 95% CI 0.83–0.86). Individual results from each assay were then compared to identify any discrepancies between the mAb assay and Freelite™. For this initial clinical validation of the mAb assay, the mean κ FLC results generated by BUCIS 01 and BUCIS 04 mAbs were used, and the λ FLC results obtained by BUCIS 03 and BUCIS 09 mAbs were used.

Both acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2

Both acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2), which are crucial biotin-dependent

enzymes, catalyze the incorporation of bicarbonate into acetyl-CoA to form malonyl-CoA. The malonylcarnitine level might reflect malonyl-CoA homeostasis. In Polish newborns with CL/P low malonylcarnitine levels (≤ 0.047μmol/L) were 1.7 times more predominant than in healthy individuals, p=0.03. The findings may suggest that the metabolic pathway of malonyl-CoA is disturbed in CL/P-affected individuals, however the potential role of biotindependent carboxylases has yet to be elucidated [28]. Moreover, further studies are needed to clarify the relation between maternal carnitine (so-called vitamin BT, which is a hydrophilic molecule) and its derivatives

(e.g. acylcarnitines) BYL719 E7080 price status and clefting risk [28, 46]. Carnitine plays an indispensable role in fatty acid oxidation. It is noteworthy that there is strong evidence for the utilization of lipids as an energy substrate by early embryos [47]. The formation of acylcarnitine conjugates is the basis of expanded newborn screening for inborn errors of metabolism based on tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The functions of zinc in the human and experimental animals’ reproduction have been studied extensively and reviewed recently by Shah and Sachdev [48]. At least in rodent models in the face of an acute dietary zinc deficiency, maternal mobilization of zinc stores is inadequate to supply the needs of the conceptus. In rats the deficiency of zinc results in offspring that are characterized by anomalies

affecting nearly every organ. In the years 2004–2005 low zinc level was independently reported as a maternal risk factor for orofacial clefts in the Netherlands (in erythrocytes) [49], the Philippines (in plasma) [50], and Poland (in serum) [22]. DOCK10 In mothers of children with CL/P mean serum zinc level was lower than in women who gave birth to children without a birth defect, 511μg/L (SD 121) vs. 572 μg/L (SD 76), p=0.01, respectively [22]. The second Polish study, in which zinc was analyzed in whole blood, confirmed an association between low maternal zinc and increased risk of CL/P in offspring [25]. A maternal whole blood zinc concentration of 47.1μmol/L or less increased the risk of CL/P 2.5-times more than higher concentrations (95%CI:1.03–6.23, p=0.04). Zinc transporters SLC30A1 and SLC30A5 play a key role in regulation the delivery of maternal zinc to the developing embryo. Embryonic nutrition is determined not only by the mother’s dietary intakes and nutrient stores, but also by transfer capabilities. Cadmium exposure down-regulates Slc30a1 expression, indicating that maternal cadmium exposure may alter zinc homeostasis in the conceptus [51]. Experimental and epidemiological studies have reported an association between prenatal exposure to cadmium and structural malformations [51, 52].

94 (P< 0001), meaning that it accounted for 88% (0 942) of the va

94 (P<.0001), meaning that it accounted for 88% (0.942) of the variation between

observers in the overall assessment of endoscopic activity. 32 The term friability invariably needs explanation. The UCEIS dispensed with the term mucosal friability, because the model including friability as a descriptor Idelalisib in vitro did not perform significantly better than one including bleeding. In practical terms, the most severely affected part of the mucosa is scored. There are, however, still limitations; thresholds for remission and mild, moderate, and severe disease have yet to be set. The extent to which full colonoscopy may influence the score compared with the flexible sigmoidoscopy on which it was based, has only started to be evaluated.37

Knowledge of symptoms does not materially influence the score, and a comparison with the Mayo Clinic endoscopy subscore shows that the UCEIS is less subject to variation by a central reader.38 Nevertheless, the UCEIS is simple enough to use in clinical practice and should achieve its goal of reducing variation in endoscopic assessment of activity between observers. Clinicians are beginning to use CFTR activator the UCEIS in clinical practice, and a preliminary study in patients admitted with acute severe colitis shows that a score of 7 or 8 (out of 8) on admission predicted an inadequate response to intravenous steroids and the need for rescue therapy with cyclosporine or infliximab.39 The UCEIS is now being used in clinical trials of UC that are in progress. There are validated endoscopic indices for the assessment of Crohn’s disease activity (Table 4).

The CDEIS is the standard, whereas the SES-CD is a simplified version. The Rutgeerts Postoperative Endoscopic Index is used for estimating the risk Anacetrapib of recurrence after ileocolic resection for Crohn’s disease. The CDEIS40 is a prospectively developed instrument constructed to detect changes in disease activity and examines 4 endoscopic variables (deep ulceration, superficial ulceration, length of ulcerated mucosa, and length of diseased mucosa) in each of the following locations: rectum, sigmoid and left colon, transverse colon, and right colon and ileum (Table 5). The total score is then divided by the number of locations explored (1–5). An additional 3 points is given if an ulcerated stenosis is present, and a further 3 points if a nonulcerated stenosis is present. CDEIS scores range from 0 to 44. • Deep ulcerations: score 0 if absent or 12 if present Although CDEIS is the standard index and is reproducible, it is also complex. It requires training and experience, especially for estimating ulcerated or diseased mucosal surfaces and distinguishing between superficial and deep ulceration. It is cumbersome to use in clinical practice. The CDEIS has appropriate sensitivity to measure changes in the mucosal appearance.

Most operators perform at least two biopsies but more can be obta

Most operators perform at least two biopsies but more can be obtained based on the lesion characteristic. It is important when using coaxial technique to leave always the inner stylet inside the entry needle as if the tip was in a small branch of a pulmonary vein, it may cause devastating air embolism [32]. In our institution, the standard practice is to seal the biopsy needle track with CX5461 a hydrogel plug when removing the introducer needle to prevent the air leaks and pneumothorax [33]. As

per manufacturer’s instructions, the introducer needle tip is positioned at deeper level to the visceral pleura. A hydrogel plug is advanced into the introducer needle which is then

removed, leaving the plug behind at the predetermined depth to expand upon contact with moist tissue and fill the track. The seal is airtight. The hydrogel plug resorbs into the body over time. After the biopsy is complete, a short CT scan is performed to evaluate patients for immediate complications. If the scan is normal with no significant pneumothorax and the patient is asymptomatic, the patient is transported on a gurney to the designated area for monitoring by the assigned medical staff. The patient should remain recumbent throughout the monitoring period. Follow-up expiratory chest selleck radiographs are obtained with sitting upright at 1–2 h after biopsy. If the chest radiograph shows no new changes, the patient is discharged. Upon discharge, the patient is asked to abstain from strenuous or weight-bearing activities for 3 days. Additionally, anticoagulants, antiplatelets and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are not allowed. Percutaneous transthoracic core biopsy of the lung is generally associated with higher complication rates compared to solid organ biopsy. Based on published guidelines by

the Society of Interventional Radiology, the overall complication rate of percutaneous transthoracic lung biopsies of 10% with threshold success rate of 85% are acceptable [34]. Most complications occur immediately or within the first hour of a biopsy and they can be treated conservatively; often on an outpatient basis [35], [36] and [37]. Fludarabine Common complications include pneumothorax and hemorrhage. Rare complications include air embolism, vasovagal reaction, cardiac tamponade, and seeding of the tract with tumor. Pneumothorax after CT-guided percutaneous lung biopsy has been reported from 8 to 54%, with an average of around 20% in most large series as CT imaging can detect even very small pneumothorax that may not even be visible on chest radiograph. However, the rate for pneumothoraces requiring treatment with chest tube varies from 5 to 18% [10], [35], [37], [38], [39], [40], [41], [42], [43], [44], [45], [46] and [47].

Because most of the toxins from arthropod venoms are active on io

Because most of the toxins from arthropod venoms are active on ion channels, they may directly or indirectly evoke changes in cell physiology. Such alterations may include release or inhibition Selleckchem Dasatinib of neurotransmitters and enzyme activation. Some arthropod toxins have been claimed to promote cavernosal relaxation and improve erectile function. As a result, the action of these toxins in CC leads to NO release, as shown by various authors (Teixeira et al., 2004a and Teixeira et al., 2004b; Yonamine et al., 2004;

Nunes et al., 2008). However, the mechanisms by which these toxins enhance penile erection have not been completely elucidated. The first related observation of priapism, following the injection

of venoms from spiders of the genus Phoneutria, seems to have been made in dogs ( Schenberg and Pereira-Lima, 1962). Nevertheless, priapism has been frequently observed in accidents involving men mostly the youngs. In vitro experiments showed that P. nigriventer venom was able to relax rabbit CC ( Lopes-Martins et al., 1994). Other studies have highlighted fractions or peptides (i.e. PNV2, PNV4) isolated from this venom as active in erectile function ( Bento et al., 1993; Rego et al., 1996). In the last Seliciclib molecular weight decade, two toxins derived from PhTx2 fraction, PnTx2-5 and PnTx2-6, initially purified and characterized by the group of C.R. Diniz (Cordeiro et al., 1992), were identified as PtdIns(3,4)P2 directly responsible for priapism symptoms (Yonamine et al., 2004; Nunes et al., 2008). The toxins PnTx2-6 and PnTx2-5 (Pn of P. nigriventer) have also been called Tx2-6 and Tx2-5, respectively, in the literature. So, the use of both terms is correspondent. Both toxins are very similar

in primary sequence (approximately 89% similarity, Fig. 3B) and have clearly shown a delay in the fast inactivation of voltage-dependent Na+ channels ( Araujo et al., 1993; Matavel et al., 2009). Biodistribution studies using labeled PnTx2-6 in mice found significantly higher toxin levels in testicles ( Yonamine et al., 2004) and penis ( Nunes et al., 2010) when compared to other tissues, after intraperitoneal injection of the toxin. It was also demonstrated that the priapism caused by intraperitoneal injection of PnTx2-5 in mice was prevented by pre-treatment with a specific or non-specific NOS inhibitor, 7NI and L-NAME, respectively ( Yonamine et al., 2004). The authors suggested that the toxin could be involved in neuronal depolarization in penis, based on previous observations showing that this toxin slowed down the fast inactivation of Na+ channels ( Araujo et al., 1993). In addition, priapism was also observed by direct injection of PnTx2-6 into mice CC ( Andrade et al., 2008). A microarray study analyzing differential gene expression of the NO pathway in mice erectile tissue before and after PnTx2-6 treatment shown that 10.

A resposta terapêutica foi apenas transitoriamente favorável, seg

A resposta terapêutica foi apenas transitoriamente favorável, seguindo-se agravamento acentuado do quadro clínico,

com Inhibitor Library cell line aumento dos parâmetros inflamatórios, evidência imagiológica de solução de continuidade entre as coleções abcedadas intra-abdominais e a árvore traqueo-brônquica esquerda. Após a opção cirúrgica de relaparotomia ter sido excluída, procedeu-se à avaliação da viabilidade de encerramento da fístula através de métodos endoscópicos. A colocação de próteses foi considerada uma má opção por não excluir seguramente a ansa cega e estar sujeita a migração9, 10, 11 and 12. A instilação de cola de fibrina tem relevado resultados muito variáveis, frequentemente desfavoráveis em casos complexos, facto também constatado na experiência limitada do nosso centro (dados não publicados). Não obstante, foi recentemente apresentada check details uma modificação da técnica com resultados bastante promissores13. Os clips convencionais apresentam limitações decorrentes das suas dimensões, escassa força compressiva e reduzida aplicabilidade

em situações de fibrose tecidual. A opção pela técnica OTSC baseou-se não só na natureza da lesão, como também nas características únicas do próprio clip. Com efeito, esta nova abordagem tem-se revelado um avanço significativo em situações análogas, arrastadas e de difícil manejo com falência de opções alternativas16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22 and 24. A correta aplicação do OTSC exige uma perfeita coaptação com a lesão e a aspiração dos tecidos para o interior do «cap» de aplicação para que possam ser capturados aquando da libertação do clip. Em alternativa, os tecidos podem ser tracionados com recurso a dispositivos manobrados pelo canal de trabalho e especificamente comercializados para o efeito (OTSC Twin Grasper® ou OTSC Anchor®, Ovesco Endoscopy GmbH, Tuebingen, Alemanha). Neste caso, o objetivo inicial

consistia em colocar o OTSC sobre o orifício de deiscência de forma convencional, fazendo uso de aspiração ou dos acessórios de tração. No entanto, tal foi totalmente inviabilizado por tuclazepam conflito de espaço e limitação de movimentos (provocado pelo aumento do diâmetro do endoscópio com a montagem do «cap» de aplicação do sistema OTSC) impedindo o correto posicionamento face a orifício excêntrico; por outro lado, o estado dos tecidos (rigidez, fibrose, friabilidade) impediu a realização de tração eficaz para o interior do «cap». Estas limitações têm sido descritas e apontadas como o principal fator determinando uma menor eficácia, relativa à alcançada no encerramento de perfurações agudas14, 16, 17, 18, 20, 22, 23 and 24.

In this context, it is important to note that

In this context, it is important to note that click here release of cytochrome c from mitochondria plays critical roles in the apoptotic cascade, activating caspase-9 which, in turn, activates executioner caspase-3 and ‐7 ( Slee et al., 1999). However, more experiments will be needed to clarify the pathways involved in the activation of caspase 3 in the striatum of (PhTe)2-treated rats. Additional evidence of the pro-apoptotic mechanism of action of (PhTe)2 comes

from our results showing decreased Akt phosphorylation/activity in striatal slices from injected animals. The PI3K-Akt signaling pathway plays a critical role in mediating survival signals in a wide range of neuronal cell types (Cardone et al., 1998). The identification of a number of substrates for the serine/threonine kinase Akt suggests that it blocks cell death by both impinging on the cytoplasmic cell death machinery and by regulating the expression of genes involved in cell death and survival (Koh et al., 2004). This is in line with Zhou et al. (2000) who described that activated Akt may inhibit activation of caspase-9 and − 3 by posttranslational modification of a cytosolic factor downstream of cytochrome c and before activation of caspase-9 ( Cardone et al., 1998). Therefore, inhibited PI3K-Akt pathway, that was found in (PhTe)2, could be consistent with the apoptotic insult

observed in the striatum. Otherwise, GSK3β is a critical downstream element of the PÌ3K/Akt pathway and its activity can be inhibited by Akt-mediated Everolimus in vitro phosphorylation at Ser9 ( Srivastava and Pandey, 1998). GSK3β has been implicated in multiple cellular processes and linked with the pathogenesis and neuronal loss in several neurodegenerative diseases ( Petit-Paitel, 2010). In his context, Takashima (2006) described that GSK-3β activation through impairment of PI3K/Akt signaling was involved in amyloid-beta (Abeta)-induced neuronal death in rat hippocampal cultures. many However, in our experimental model of (PhTe)2-induced neurodegeneration, Akt inhibition is apparently not implicated

in GSK3β (Ser9) hyperphosphorylation, supporting different signaling pathways downstream of different stressor events. In the CNS, following injury, astrocytes become reactive, a prominent process leading to the formation of the glial scar that inhibits axon regeneration after CNS injury. Upon becoming reactive, astrocytes undergo various molecular and morphological changes including upregulation of their expression of GFAP, vimentin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans as well as other molecules that are inhibitory to axon growth (Yu et al., 2012). However, upregulation of IFs is a hallmark of astrogliosis and a well-accepted indicator of structural damage in the CNS (Sofroniew and Vinters, 2010).

Nonetheless, it is useful to discuss these to identify points on

Nonetheless, it is useful to discuss these to identify points on which they remain appropriate, and points on which they are clearly obsolete. To facilitate cross-referencing I shall discuss items in the same order as they appear in the IUBMB recommendations. Although

the 1981 recommendations are still applicable, in the sense that there has been no formal revision, I shall refer to them in the past tense in this chapter to it make easier to distinguish what was recommended then and what the members of STRENDA think now (Tipton et al., 2014). This introduction is deferred until after the discussion of kinetics. This section contained definitions of standard terms used in biochemistry, most notably BKM120 ic50 catalyst, concentration, enzyme, substrate, inhibitor, activator, effector IDH tumor and modifier. Most of these require

no comment, as they were defined in accordance with ordinary practice in biochemistry, but concentration was considered to be an abbreviation for amount-of-substance concentration, a term that most biochemists will never have encountered, and which is virtually never used by them as it is normally the only kind of concentration they ever use. Its formal SI unit is mol dm−3, but this is virtually never written in this way in biochemical publications, being (equivalently) written as mol l−l, mol L−1 or simply M. Although not stated in the recommendations it is generally accepted that any of these last three units can be prefixed m (milli, 10−3), µ (micro, 10−6), p (pico, 10−9), n (nano, 10−12), as appropriate. The rate of consumption Nitroxoline   of a reactant of concentration [A] was defined

as equation(1) vA=−d[A]dtin which t   represents time. Square brackets could be used without definition, as here, to represent concentrations. Other symbols, such as a   for the concentration of A, were permissible, but needed to be explicitly defined. The rate of formation   of a product 4 of concentration [P] is defined as equation(2) vP=d[P]dtThe terms rate   and velocity   are synonymous, and these are normally measured in M s−1, or one of the obvious variants implicit in the discussion above. Because of the minus sign in Eq. (1) the values of vAvA and vPvP are equal if A and P have equal stoichiometric coefficients, as is the case in most (but not all) enzyme-catalysed reactions, and if so the subscripts can be omitted from v and the term rate of reaction used. The section began by discussing the complications that arise when the stoichiometry is not one-to-one, when, for example, two molecules of the same product are generated when one molecule of substrate is consumed. Reactions of this kind are not common in enzyme kinetics, but they do occur, for example, the hydrolysis of maltose catalysed by α-glucosidase.

The findings support the start of a multicenter randomized trial

The findings support the start of a multicenter randomized trial to assess the clinical value of embolus detection in TIA and stroke care. During this study we observed that some patients learn more with

a low ABCD2 score may exhibit ongoing cerebral embolism and other patients with high score ABCD2 scores did not always show cerebral embolism and vice versa. It seems that both methods could in a way be complementary as the EDS results are more indicative for plaque stability while some of the ABCD2 score components are more indicative for plaque formation (such as age, blood pressure and diabetes). This study showed that EDS monitoring can be used for diagnosis and monitoring unstable carotid artery disease and gave insight in the epidemiology of cerebral embolism. MES were seen during the diastolic phase of the cardiac cycle and disappeared by anti-thrombotic drugs or plaques removal. The aforementioned aspects of the MES could best be explained by the

hypothesis that these MES were generated by small solid particles that were disloged into the circulation by unstable carotid artery stenosis [9]. In some patients we noted >12 MES in 30 min which means that hundreds of these small particles Erastin order must go to the brain within a 24 h timeframe. Only a minority of these micro emboli resulted in TIA’s or minor strokes. It seemed that the normal brain has the capacity to clear these of tiny micro-emboli. An important aspect is the duration of monitoring that is needed to detect emboli. Previous studies showed that embolism is from non-continuous phenomenon so it might be that very short observation times result in false negative monitoring results. The present study however shows that 30 min of monitoring gives relevant clinical information which, in combination with a zero-tolerance regime can, reduce the stroke recurrence rate. If the frequency of embolism is high the observation time might be limited less than 30 min. We feel that the time that is needed to document at least two MES is the minimum time for embolus detection. Future

studies with ambulatory TCD systems will focus on the value of extended embolus detection beyond the 30 min [10]. This study showed that therapeutical interventions could arrest ongoing cerebral embolism. This was observed after angioplasty, carotid stenting or after a drug switch to clopidogrel. The latter is in accordance with the CARESS trial [11] which showed that in patients with recently symptomatic carotid stenosis, combination therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin is more effective in reducing asymptomatic embolism. Although the number of observation are small in the present study Table 4 indicates a trend that patients who experienced cerebral embolism have a different vascular profile than those who do not exhibit cerebral embolism. Embolus positive patients showed in contrast to embolus negative patients more retinal and cortical TIA in combination with a symptomatic high-grade carotid artery stenosis.

Countries that should improve their data collection and reporting

Countries that should improve their data collection and reporting systems are mainly found in Africa, Asia and among the island states in Oceania and the Caribbean (Table 1). The quality of the statistics included in the FAO capture databases learn more is mostly dependent upon the accuracy and reliability of the data collected

and provided by countries. When analyzing aggregated or global trends, the number of countries, the size of FAO fishing areas and the extended species coverage included in the database often play a buffer effect. Despite significant annual variations by country, fishing area and species, recent global total catch trend has been quite stable in the last four years (2006–2009) for which statistics are available at the time of writing, ranging between 88.9 and 90.1 million tonnes. On the other hand, in some cases disaggregated data series may be biased or disrupted due to a range of reasons: • erroneous reporting: magnitudes of reported catches may be erroneous due to shortcomings in the data collection system, wrong procedures applied in raising sample data, 20 or for political reasons, e.g. countries with a centrally planned economy which report continuously growing catches to match targets

set in yearly or multi-year national plans; As already noted in Section 3.2.1, trends in the data series also reflect political

and natural events that greatly impacted the fishery sector in a country. For example, striking decreases of capture production in the 1960s for the Democratic Republic BMS 354825 of the Congo and in 1996 for Burundi and Rwanda were due to political crises and civil wars, while the drop of Spanish catches in the Southeast Atlantic was a consequence of the Namibian independence. buy Rucaparib Hurricane Katrina struck the US Gulf Coast at the end of August 2005 and, although the Western Central Atlantic fishing area covers the US coast from North Carolina to the Mexican border, total catches by the United States in that year decreased by almost 20% in comparison to the previous year. Serious catch reductions are also expected as a consequence of the April 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico and the March 2011 tsunami in Japan. Unexpectedly, other natural disasters, like the December 2004 tsunami that affected many important Asian fishing countries and the cyclone Nargis that in May 2008 caused the worst natural disaster in the recorded history of Myanmar, did not result in significant catch decreases as it would have been expected due to the magnitude of the devastations. FAO requested clarifications to the most involved countries. Indonesia replied that damages in Banda Aceh due to the tsunami were compensated by increased catches in other regions.