Inclusion criteria were age >18 years, single stroke of ≥3 months

Inclusion criteria were age >18 years, single stroke of ≥3 months duration, unilateral upper limb weakness, completed

upper limb rehabilitation, and the presence of motor-evoked potentials in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation with the muscles either at rest or preactivated (to ensure potential for functional improvement14). Exclusion criteria were contraindications to transcranial magnetic stimulation (eg, epilepsy or seizures), cardiac pacemakers or metal implants in the head, severe spasticity (≥4 on the Modified Ashworth Scale [MAS]15), wheelchair-bound, or presence of dysphasia or cognitive dysfunction sufficient to limit the ability to provide click here informed consent. All participants received 12 sessions (4wk) of TST with an experienced neurophysiotherapist

(S.F.R.L.). Each 30-minute session was divided into 6 sections of 5 minutes: stretching and warm-up, grasp, grip, pinch, gross movements, and patient choice. The tasks were based around those required for the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT)16 and were practiced in a pseudo-randomized order in each session.10 Demographic and clinical variables were chosen that are commonly assessed in survivors of stroke in clinical and/or research settings and could be logically thought to have a potential influence on the amount of paretic arm use. Data were obtained from the assessments of the RCT. These variables included age, time since stroke (chronicity), Barthel Index,17 MAS,15 baseline ARAT,18 baseline upper RVX-208 limb Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA),19 and change in ARAT and FMA 3 months after TST. The ARAT and FMA are standardized measures of upper limb function.16, 18 and 19 The ARAT is formed of 4 subsections: grasp, grip, pinch, and gross. Each task is scored out of 3 (high score means good function, maximum of 57). The FMA is formed of 4 subsections: shoulder, wrist, hand, and coordination. Each task is scored out of 2

(high score means good function, maximum of 66). The subsection scores were also included as potential predictors. The dependent variables were the average baseline MAL amount of use and the change 3 months after TST. The MAL requires participants to report how much (amount of use) they use their affected arm for a selection of daily activities. Ratings are from 0 (arm not used at all) to 5 (used as much as before the stroke). After confirmation that the 2 baseline assessments were not statistically different (paired t tests), mean values were used for the ARAT, FMA, and MAL. Spearman correlations were performed to determine whether clinical and demographic factors ( table 1) correlated with baseline MAL amount of use rating. Forward stepwise multiple linear regression analysesa were conducted to explore the variables that predicted baseline MAL amount of use and change in the amount of use 3 months after TST.

In addition to ACE2 and Ang-(1-7), Mas is part of the cardioprote

In addition to ACE2 and Ang-(1-7), Mas is part of the cardioprotective axis of the RAS, therefore it is of major importance to determine whether cardiac Mas expression is modulated

at distinct physiological and pathological conditions. In our recent report, we have submitted Wistar rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) to a physical training protocol. Interestingly, only SHR presented an increase in left ventricular Mas expression in response to exercise training [9], indicating that cardiac Mas expression can be regulated not only according to the stimulus, physiological or pathological, but also according to the state of the animal, i.e. healthy or diseased. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the responsiveness of Mas expression in rat hearts submitted to pathological challenges such as myocardial hypertrophy, MG-132 order infarction and hypertension, and under a physiological condition (physical exercise training). Three month-old male Wistar and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used in this study. The animals were provided by the animal facility of the Biological Sciences Institute (CEBIO, Federal University

of Minas Gerais) and housed in a temperature (22–24 °C) and humidity-controlled room maintained on a 12:12-h light–dark schedule with free access to food and water. All animal procedures were performed in accordance with guidelines for the humane use of laboratory animals at our Institute and were approved by local authorities. Selleck MDV3100 The exercise training was performed in swimming pools with controlled temperature (31 ± 1 °C) for 40–60 min per day, 5 days per week over 10 weeks.

After the first week of adaptation in the swimming pools, Wistar rats (3 month-old, n = 4–6) were submitted to a progressive load test, which consisted of an increasing workload corresponding to 2% of body weight added every 3 min until exhaustion. This test was repeated at the end of the physical training protocol. Exercise intensity of the endurance training was set at 50–80% (second and third weeks: 40–60 min at 50%; fourth week: 40 min at 60%; fifth week: 40 min at 70%; and sixth to tenth weeks: 40–60 min at 80%) of the maximal weight obtained in the progressive test. The maximal weight carried by the Celecoxib animal in the progressive load test was converted to percentage of the animal body weight. Thus, every week the rats were weighed, and using the previously calculated percentage value, a new maximal load was obtained and the 50–80% workload was determined. With this procedure, we eliminated the need for performing the progressive load test on a weekly basis [1]. At the end of the training, the rats were killed by decapitation and the hearts were immediately removed. Left ventricular wet weights were recorded, normalized for body weight and then expressed as cardiac mass index (mg/g). The left ventricles were used for histology and western blot analysis.

There are no direct clinical comparison outcome studies of HDR, p

There are no direct clinical comparison outcome studies of HDR, permanent seeds, or SBRT. Because ADT has not been shown to enhance disease control with HDR prostate brachytherapy and ADT is usually not required for downsizing of prostate volume with HDR brachytherapy, it can usually be omitted for favorable risk group cases. Most centers in the United States have used HDR monotherapy click here to treat low- and intermediate-risk group disease whereas those in Asia and Europe treat

patients in all risk groups. HDR brachytherapy can be used to deliver the dose to a definable margin around the prostate and into the seminal vesicles; thus it effectively treats patients with local

extension beyond the prostate. Buparlisib ic50 Whether higher risk group patients should have HDR monotherapy or HDR combined therapy with EBRT remains to be determined. There is no consensus on the optimal dose and fractionation schedule for HDR brachytherapy. The longest followup for outcomes is with moderate-hypofractionation (4–9 fractions), but excellent results are being reported with ultra-hypofractionation (1–3 fractions). The emergence of ultra-hypofractionation with only 1–2 treatments makes HDR logistically comparable to seed implant and adds a high degree of dosimetry control and accuracy in brachytherapy. There are two simulation and dosimetry methods (TRUS and CT). The advantages of TRUS are its use of real-time imaging and interactive dosimetry whereas CT dosimetry provides the clearest images of catheters and the relationship of the implant to adjacent organs. The TRUS approach is most time efficient. Regardless of the imaging modality and treatment planning system, HDR monotherapy is an excellent treatment modality for the management of prostate cancer. “
“The corrected mafosfamide authorship is: Dorin A. Todor, Mitchell S. Anscher, Jeremy D. Karlin, Michael P. Hagan Department of Radiation Oncology,

Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA The authors apologize for any inconvenience caused. “
“Breast-conserving therapy (BCT) represents one of the seminal treatment breakthroughs in the management of breast cancer. With more than 20-year followup, multiple randomized trials have found comparable outcomes between BCT and mastectomy, allowing women to choose to preserve their breast without compromising their ability to be cured of their cancer [1], [2] and [3]. Beyond simply preserving the breast, BCT has been associated with improved quality of life, including social functioning, body image, and physical functioning, compared with mastectomy (4).

, 1984) To induce a fully protective antibody response against t

, 1984). To induce a fully protective antibody response against the target disease, a multiple-dose vaccination schedule is usually required. As a consequence, a reduction in the immunization compliance with the subsequent breakdown in the schedule takes place. Thus, the development of single-shot vaccination approaches would improve the immunization efficacy, and additionally, would help reduce the waste

disposal associated with the needles and syringes (Cui et al., 2003 and Prego et al., 2010). In this context, chitosan is a non-toxic, non-antigenic, non-irritable, bio-adhesive, biocompatible and biodegradable polycationic polymer, which has been extensively investigated for formulating nanocarriers and delivery systems for therapeutic macromolecules, such as peptide, protein, antigen, oligonucleotide and genes (Balenga et al., Lumacaftor research buy 2006). Due its cationic character, this polymer can easily be complexed to negatively charged molecules like DNAs and proteins (Janes et al., 2001, Lameiro et al., 2006 and Richardson et al., 1999). Different chemical species have been used to obtain cross-linked chitosan nanoparticles by ionotropic gelation. Among them, sodium tripolyphosphate presents some advantages,

such as molecule size, triple negative charge, pH range application and mainly its biocompatibility. In acidic solution, the amine groups of chitosan are positively charged (NH3+), which interacts tightly with anionic Metformin groups of TPP, leading to cross-linking and consequently Protirelin nanoparticle formation (Tsai et al., 2008). The use of chitosan as immunoadjuvant in vaccines for immunization against Helicobacter pylori ( Xie et al., 2007), diphtheria ( Huo et al., 2005) and hepatitis B ( Prego et al., 2010) has been described

before, and these studies come to the conclusion that the combination with a chitosan provides a considerable increase in the stability and efficacy of immune response. The development of a novel immunoadjuvant based on chitosan nanocarriers immunization of scorpion venom is of great importance to public health since it could provide a basis for the formulation of a new serum against toxins from the venom of the scorpion T. serrulatus providing less or no side effects. Furthermore, this approach can be used to immunize animals with other antigens, such as venoms of snakes, spiders, frogs, caterpillars, bees, wasps and other. In the present study, the efficacy of a novel T. serrulatus venom-loaded cross-linked chitosan nanoparticle was compared with the traditional immunoadjuvant aluminum hydroxide. Moreover, the antibodies obtained after immunization for each adjuvant were evaluated and new serum anti-T. serrulatus venom was obtained.

5 PSU higher than at station B7 as a result of mixing, except und

5 PSU higher than at station B7 as a result of mixing, except under extreme conditions. In July 1999, there is an almost 0.5 PSU salinity difference between two stations as an indication of this mixing. In 2000, the tongue-shaped CIW is clearly identified in

Figure 6. The distribution of the cold intermediate water from north to south gives an idea of the dynamics of the strait. The difference in upper layer temperature at the strait ends is 3.5 °C (24.5 °C at K0 and 21 °C at B2). Because of the mixing between the upper and CIW layers, the upper layer temperature decreases in the south of the strait. The extent of this decrease depends on the upper layer current velocity see more and the thickness of CIW. On the other hand, the amount

of CIW entering the strait from the Black Sea is under the influence of Danubian water, as observed in 1999. In order to examine the annual and seasonal variation of cold water in the Strait of Istanbul and in both exit regions, the minimum and average temperatures were recorded at stations M23, M8, B2, B7, Antidiabetic Compound Library research buy B13, K0 and K2 during the period 1996–2000. The temperature transects for July reveal the need for a new definition of cold intermediate water in the strait. The Black Sea CIW entering the strait is exposed to mixing because of the strait dynamics. This mixing occurs between (CIW)8 and the upper layer, as well as between (CIW)8 and the Mediterranean water. Consequently this water mass has different properties than (CIW)8. It is better to characterize this mixed water by its temperature. Although there is some disadvantage, the choice of 14 °C appears suitable to distinguish it from Mediterranean water, the temperature of which is usually > 14 °C. When the surface temperature Bcl-w is > 14 °C, the thickness and average temperature of the cold layer are calculated from the temperature profiles. This cold layer is defined as modified CIW or (CIW)14. The results are given in Table 1. Figure 3 shows (CIW)8 at stations K2 and K0 and

(CIW)14 at stations B2, B7, M8 and M23. In addition to the parameters in Table 1, the salinity at the minimum temperature depth is given in Figure 3. The variation of (CIW)14 at the Marmara Sea exit of the strait has characteristics similar to those of the variation of (CIW)8 at the Black Sea exit of the strait. On the other hand, the characteristics of (CIW)14 at stations B7, B2 are different at both exits due to dynamic conditions along the strait. In 1996, modified CIW is observed in June at stations B2, B7, B13 and K0. In July, it is found only at stations B13 and K0 because of the mixing of the layers in the strait. In August, modified CIW is observed at stations M8, B2 and K2, but in September only at station K0. In 1997, (CIW)14 is observed at stations B7, B13, K0 and K2 from May to September, but at station B2 only in June and July. In the Sea of Marmara (station M8), it is observed from June to September.

2 and 3 5 with increasing PAH concentrations up to 0 25 μmol L−1,

2 and 3.5 with increasing PAH concentrations up to 0.25 μmol L−1, respectively. The presence of Ca2+ significantly promoted the low-efficiency transformation of plasmid exposure to PAHs, and the presence of 0.5 mmol L−1 Ca2+ recovered the efficiency from 3.2,

3.5 to about 4.45 and 4.75, respectively [15]. Compared to the enhanced transformational efficiency caused by higher concentrations of Ca2+ (>80 mmol L−1) (results found in Refs. [6] and [16]), these results explain how a very tiny amount of Ca2+ can enhance gene transfer involving isolated DNA via PAHs. Although previous reports postulated that a Ca2+ concentration >80 mmol L−1 significantly enhanced the DNA transformation via the formation of hydroxyl–calcium phosphate complexes MK0683 clinical trial in DNA [6] and [16], Fig. 3 indicates that the necessary Ca2+concentration of 0.5 mmol L−1 obviously promoted the transfer efficiency of plasmid DNA exposed MAPK Inhibitor Library cost to PAHs. In other words, the enhancement of DNA transformation on exposure to PAHs cannot be attributed to the formation of hydroxyl–calcium phosphate by anti-DNase in DNA, but is related to the isolation of the DNA from PAHs by Ca2+. Based on this experimental evidence, such a Ca2+-controlled mechanism for the transfer of genetic material exposed to PAHs may involve the combination of Ca2+ with the POO− groups in DNA to form strong electrovalent bonds.

Because POO− groups and Ca2+ are different in electric charges, each Ca2+ will

theoretically bond two POO− , resulting in a chain of POO− groups that may lock up neighboring nucleotides mafosfamide [15]. This will weaken the molecular effect of DNA on PAH and promote the low-efficiency transfer of DNA plasmids exposed to PAH contaminants (Fig. 4). This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41401543, and 51278252), the National Science Foundation for Post-doctoral Scientists of China (2014M561662), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (BK20140725 and BK20130030). “
“Enzyme production is an expanding field of biotechnology. Laccase (E.C., p-benzenedial: oxygen oxidoreductase) is able to catalyze the oxidation of various aromatic compounds (particularly phenol) with the concomitant reduction of oxygen to water [1]. Although the enzyme is present in plants, insects and bacteria, the most important source are fungi and particularly basidiomycetes [1] and [2]. The white-rot fungi are the most efficient microorganisms capable of extensive aerobic lignin degradation. Due to the higher redox potential of fungal laccase compared to plant or bacterial laccase, they are utilized in several biotechnological applications [3]. Fungal laccase is considered a key player in lignin degradation and/or the removal of potentially toxic phenols arising during morphogenesis, sporulation, or phytopathogenesis and fungal virulence [4].

1% to 38% ( Fig  1D; Supplemental Table 1) However, when all fem

1% to 38% ( Fig. 1D; Supplemental Table 1). However, when all females were considered, acy3 expression and egg quality were not correlated ( Supplemental Figs. 2G and 3C). Two microarray features (20 K probe ID numbers 38561 and 48795) identified

as importin subunit alpha-8 (synonym: karyopherin alpha 7, kpna7) were > 2-fold higher expressed in fertilized eggs from the best quality female (2) compared with fertilized eggs from both of the lowest quality females (12 and 13) ( Table 2). qPCR showed that kpna7 transcript was detectable in the eggs of all females involved in the fertilized and unfertilized egg studies ( Figs. 3D and 4D). For both fertilized and unfertilized eggs, female 10 had the lowest kpna7 transcript expression (RQ of 1.0 for both studies; Supplemental Table 11 and Supplemental buy PD0325901 Table 13). In fertilized eggs, the two females with the highest

kpna7 transcript expression were females 5 and 2 (RQ values of 64.1 and 27.8, respectively), while for unfertilized eggs females 9 and 2 (RQ values of 67.8 and 41.8, respectively) had the highest kpna7 transcript expression ( Supplemental Table 11 and Supplemental Table 13). It is interesting to note that females 2, 5, and 9 all had below average total mortality at 7 dpf (15.7%, 36.6%, and 28.5%, respectively, compared with an learn more average of 50.7%) ( Fig. 1C; Table 4). However, the association of high kpna7 expression and egg quality was not consistent. Some females with above Celecoxib average egg

quality (e.g. females 3, 11, and 16) had relatively low kpna7 transcript expression ( Figs. 1C, 3D, and 4D). Further, when all females were considered, there was no correlation between kpna7 transcript expression and egg quality in either fertilized or unfertilized eggs ( Supplemental Figs. 2H and 3D). The hacd1 transcript was detectable in the fertilized and unfertilized egg from all females involved in the qPCR studies ( Figs. 3E and 4E). In the fertilized egg qPCR study, females 6 and 7 had the lowest hacd1 transcript expression (RQ of 1.0), and female 6 also had the lowest hacd1 expression in the unfertilized egg qPCR study ( Supplemental Table 11 and Supplemental Table 13). In both the fertilized egg and the unfertilized egg qPCR studies, the highest hacd1 transcript expression was measured for females 2, 5, and 9 (RQ values of 8.6, 8.4, and 11.0, respectively, for fertilized eggs; and RQ values of 8.2, 7.5, and 4.3, respectively, for unfertilized eggs) ( Figs. 3E and 4E; Supplemental Table 11 and Supplemental Table 13), all of which had below average total mortality at 7 dpf ( Fig. 1C; Table 4). As seen with kpna7, however, the association of high hacd1 expression with higher egg quality was not consistent, with some females with above average egg quality (e.g. females 3, 11, and 16) having relatively low hacd1 transcript expression ( Figs. 1C, 3E, and 4E).

At times it can be clearly seen along the whole length of the occ

At times it can be clearly seen along the whole length of the occipital horn, in other cases it covers only the posterior part because its fibres bent upwards far more posteriorly and hence strengthen the layer of the vertical ascending fibre. The latter borders directly the ependyma. The same position

is not possible for those forceps fibres originating from the GW 572016 inner part of the fusiform gyrus, the lingual gyrus and the calcar avis at the medial surface of the occipital horn. This is due to the prominent calcar avis that bulges into the occipital horn and hinders a solid development of fibres that do not belong to the calcar avis. The entire forceps fibres originating from the lingual and fusiform gyri that should ascend vertically at this point are running longitudinally along the inferior medial edge of the occipital horn and thereby strengthen the medial half of the longitudinal fibres at the inferior occipital horn. Hence, this forms a cord-like tract, which thickens towards the front (4.). Just before Panobinostat in vivo the anterior aspect of the calcar avis, directly behind the opening of the occipital horn, this tract has enough room to ascend as “small inner part of the forceps” from within the occipital horn. Once it reaches the roof of the ventricle, this tract bends inwards to join the larger upper part of the forceps and merge with the corpus callosum. The

white matter of the fusiform gyrus is adjacent to the above-mentioned fibres that run inferior to isothipendyl the occipital horn (7.), whilst the white matter of

the lingual gyrus forms a denser layer (10.) similar to the one from the dorsal convexity. The fibres from the thin sagittal veil at the inner surface of the occipital horn – the internal forceps layer (3.), which are probably joined by callosal fibres originating from the calcar avis, merge anteriorly in the ascending part of the small forceps. The entire inferior part of the forceps and the sagittal veil at the inner surface of the occipital horn show great variability. Both structures are mutually dependent: If the lower forceps is strongly developed, than the veil at the inner surface will be very fine to the point where it is difficult to appreciate it even at a high magnification and it might only consists of two or three fibre layers. In rare cases however, all of the inferior forceps vanishes and instead forms a tract merging with the veil, which develops as a relatively strong layer that uniformly covers the inner surface of the posterior horn. At times, the inner forceps does not ascend anterior to the calcar avis but ascends more posteriorly in a diagonal direction upwards and forwards. All forceps fibres are characterised by a strong fibre diameter. The layers of the forceps stain rather dark with haematoxylin, and strongly yellow with picrocarmin. The stratum sagittale internum wraps around the forceps just as the forceps encases the occipital horn.

2 Sufficiently small pressure gradient errors are commonly belie

2. Sufficiently small pressure gradient errors are commonly believed to alter the solution by linearly superimposing a geometry-dependent spurious component to the background flow. To assure that these effects are minimized, several tests with various realistically BAY 80-6946 in vivo stratified but horizontally uniform profiles of temperature and salinity were performed. In these test cases, which ideally should produce an equilibrium state that is fully at rest, the maximum velocities occur near the ice front, but remain small (below 2 cm s−1) relative to

the typical 5–50 cm s−1 currents occurring in the full simulation. In order to estimate the influence of different oceanic processes on basal melt rates, a set of semi-idealized model forcings is derived from the data presented in Section 2. The forcing which most realistically represents the FIS present-day conditions, referred to as experiment “ANN-100” hereafter, assumes a quasi-steady annual cycle of the coastal circulation

selleck chemical and can be described as follows. To reproduce realistic water masses in the model interior, temperature and salinity at the eastern (inflow) model boundary are nudged to the time-varying climatological ASF section described in Section 2.2. The nudging time-scale varies linearly from 3 days at the boundary to 10 days at the interior end of the 15 grid point wide nudging zone in all 24 vertical layers. A sponge layer with enhanced diffusion of tracers and momentum in the northernmost 10 grid points minimizes reflections at the northern channel wall, and a full-depth nudging of temperature and salinity (with a 30 day time scale) in the sponge layer is applied to preserve a horizontally homogeneous water mass distribution in the deep ocean. The surface properties Diflunisal outside the FIS are largely determined by the annul cycle of melting and freezing of sea ice

(Nicholls et al., 2009). To mimic the effect of sea ice, which is not included in our model, temperature and salinity within the uppermost model layer are directly restored to the horizontally averaged surface climatology obtained from the seal data, with a nudging time scale of 10 days. This setup for the hydrographic forcing avoids the uncertainties associated with poorly constrained fluxes at the air-ice-ocean boundary, and allows us to study the direct oceanic response to different upper ocean conditions, while assuring a consistent model forcing. For the mechanical surface forcing, a wind stress that is constant in time, but resolves the average spatial pattern of the wind field in the model domain is applied. The forcing field is derived by time-averaging the RACMO2 results, with minor modifications applied in order to ensure periodicity at the boundaries.

, 2000; Yan and Adams, 2000) They both are 76 amino acids long,

, 2000; Yan and Adams, 2000). They both are 76 amino acids long, show similar placement of the cysteine residues, and have

overall sequence identity of 70%. These data suggest that the disulfide bonding patterns of the two molecules are likely check details to be very similar; however, there has been no NMR study on either PnTx3-4 or ω-Aga-IIIA to define their three-dimensional structure. Recently Kozlov and Grishin (2005), based on the fact that the majority of spider toxins share similarity in cysteine arrangement and disulfide bridge pattern, developed a new algorithm that reliably predicts the three-dimensional structure of the cysteine knot motif based on primary sequence analysis. Interestingly, these authors showed that PnTx3-4 and ω-Aga-IIIA primary structure conform to all the criteria of a knottin scaffold (Kozlov and Grishin, 2005). p38 MAPK activity An automated modeling procedure is now available for predicting the three-dimensional structure of knottins (Gracy and Chiche, 2010 and Gracy and Chiche, 2011) and a database of structural models for all known knottin sequences is freely accessible from the web site Fig. 7 shows the comparison between the knottin database predicted three-dimensional structures of PnTx3-4 and ω-Aga-IIIA toxins. The two peptides

show remarkable structural similarity (Fig. 7C), not only at the N-terminal end, where they show high sequence similarity, but also at the C-terminus, where the peptides do not show amino acid sequence similarity or conserved localization of cysteine residues (Fig. 1). Based on the fact that the different steps of the homology modeling were carefully optimized using a large set of knottins with known structures and the accuracy of predicted models was shown

to lie between 1.50 and 1.96 Å (Gracy and Chiche, 2010), it is tempting to propose that the predicted model for PnTx3-4 is a close representation of the actual structure of the toxin. In fact, our CD spectrum analysis of the refolded toxin indicated that PnTx3-4 contains predominantly random coil formation, which corroborates the predicted model proposed. The functional expression of recombinant PnTx3-4 and the structural analysis reported here provide the basis for future large scale production and structure-function investigation of this peptide. This work was supported by the “Milenium Institute for development of drugs based Pomalidomide chemical structure on toxins” (Milenio-2005; Brazil; V.F.P., M.A.M. P and M.V.G.), Capes Toxinology Program 1444/2011 and PRONEX-2005 (ABORDAGEM GENETICO-MOLECULAR PARA O ESTUDO DO SISTEMA COLINERGICO; Brazil; V.F.P; M.A.M. P; M.V.G.). Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI, V.F.P & M.A.M.P), the Ontario Research Fund (ORF, V.F.P & M.A.M.P) and the University of Western Ontario (V.F.P. & M.A.M.P.). I. A. Souza received a PhD fellowship from CAPES (Brazil) and an award from the Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada (DFAIT) – Grant Agreement for Emerging Leaders in the Americas (ELAP).