Figure 1 presents a summary of 12-month rates of migraine derived from studies that employed the ICHD-II criteria for headache syndromes. A total of 272,731 people from 17 countries have been included in 19 studies. There are 2 studies from Africa,[19, 20] 2 from Asia,[21, 22] 11 buy OTX015 from Europe,[22-34] 1 from the Middle East, 1 from North America, and 2 from South America (both in Brazil).[37, 38] There is a wide range of 12-month prevalence estimates with the lowest rate of 2.6% in Tanzania, and the highest rate (ie, 21.7%) in Italy. The prevalence
of migraine appears to be substantially lower in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East than that in Europe and North America. Possible explanations for differences in rates are likely to be attributable to methodologic factors such as the method for ascertaining the diagnostic PD0332991 criteria and sample characteristics, as recently discussed by Gudmundsson and Scher. Despite the wide range of estimates, the weighted average across ICHD-II definite migraine is 11.5%. These findings are remarkably similar to the average 10-12% rates of migraine that that have emerged from prior reviews of population-based studies of migraine.[2, 4, 6, 13, 16] The large number of prevalence studies in Europe can be attributed in part to the implementation of the Global Campaign
Against Headache, known as “Lifting The Burden” that was established in 2003[3, 39-45] to expand the evidence base regarding the magnitude
and impact of headache in order to persuade governments and policy-makers to increase Venetoclax the priority of headache as a global public health concern. The majority of these studies also estimated the prevalence of probable migraine, defined as category 1.7 in the ICHD-II. The weighted cross-study averaged that the 12-month prevalence of probable migraine is 7%[20, 23-27, 29-33, 35, 36] with a range from 1.8% to 26.3%. Estimates of the rates of probable migraine tend to be lower than those of definite migraine in the majority of studies. Taken together, the weighted cross-study rate of both probable and definite migraine is 18.5%. This rate exceeds the average of earlier IHS-defined studies. Several of these recent surveys have also provided estimates of migraine with aura that were clarified and simplified in the ICDH-II (Fig. 2). The weighted average 12-month prevalence rate across studies is 4.4%[20, 24-30, 37] with a range from 1.2% to 5.8%. This represents about one quarter of adults with migraine. The average cross-study estimate of chronic migraine was 0.5% with a range from 0.2%-2.7%. Recent reviews of the prevalence of episodic tension-type headache estimate the aggregate prevalence of tension-type headache of 38%, and a more recent update with 10 additional studies at 32%.