For the laser-driven oscillations studied, damping by the surroun

For the laser-driven oscillations studied, damping by the surrounding air is unimportant in the range of frequencies probed. Large-curvature response is expected to extend

to higher pulse frequencies for cantilevers with smaller dimensions. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. Bcl-2 apoptosis pathway [doi:10.1063/1.3658776]“
“In plant cells, many vacuolar proteins are synthesized as precursors in the endoplasmic reticulum and are subsequently transported to the vacuole. These precursors are subject to post-translational modifications to allow the active mature forms to be produced. Vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE) has been identified as a family of cysteine proteases involved in protein maturation in the vacuole. In this study, novel VPE genes were isolated from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and they were designated SlVPE1-SlVPE5. OICR-9429 Phylogenic analysis suggested that SlVPE1 and SlVPE2 were categorized as the seed coat type, SlVPE4 was categorized as the seed type, and both SlVPE3 and SlVPE5 were categorized as the vegetative type. Expression analysis demonstrated

that these genes were expressed during fruit development, and that their expression profiles agreed with this classification. High VPE enzyme activity was observed during tomato fruit development; the enzyme activity was correlated with the SlVPE mRNA levels, indicating that the SlVPE encoded active VPE proteins. The total sugar content was higher in RNA interference (RNAi) lines compared with the control plants, suggesting negative roles for SlVPE in sugar accumulation. The quantitative expression analysis of each SlVPE gene in the RNAi lines suggested that the suppression of SlVPE5 probably had the strongest effect on the sugar accumulation observed. The suppression of SlVPE did not influence the total amino acid content, suggesting that the molecular

targets of SlVPE were mainly involved in sugar accumulation.”
“Background Work-up of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) often involves bone marrow (BM) examinations. We evaluated 23 transplant patients with PTLDs to investigate incidence of BM involvement and associated morphologic changes as well as prognosis. Methods We retrospectively assessed BM findings of 23 transplant patients with PTLDs who had undergone BM staging at Seoul Asan Geneticin Microbiology inhibitor Medical Center from 1994 to 2010. Results Four (17%) showed BM involvement of PTLDs, including two pathologically diagnosed with PTLD by liver and skin biopsy and two diagnosed by BM examination. PTLD subtypes in four patients were all monomorphic, with one each having plasma cell myeloma, diffuse large B cell lymphoma, monomorphic B cell lineage, and monomorphic T-cell lineage. EpsteinBarr virus (EBV) in situ hybridization showed 11 of 23 (47.8%) patients were EBV positive, including two patients with BM involvement, one each with plasma cell myeloma and monomorphic T-cell lineage.

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