“One-step synthesis of star copolymers by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) and ring-opening polymerization (ROP) by using a novel dual initiator is reported. Triarm block copolymers comprising one polystyrene (or polyacrylamide) arm and two poly(beta-butyrolactone) arms were synthesized in one-step by simultaneous RAFT polymerization of styrene (St) (or acrylamide, designated as AAm) and ROP of beta-butyrolactone (BL) in the presence
of a novel trifunctional initiator, 1,2-propanediol ethyl xanthogenate (RAFT-ROP agent). This dual initiator was obtained through the reaction of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol with the potassium salt of ethyl xanthogenate. The principal parameters such as monomer concentration, initiator concentration, and polymerization time that affect the one-step polymerization reaction were evaluated. The characterization of the products was achieved using Fourier-transform Nutlin3 infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR), (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C-NMR), Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gel-permeation chromatography (GPC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and fractional precipitation (7) techniques. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 117: 1638-1645, 2010″
“Background: Pulmonary hypertension due to left
heart disease is very common. Our aim was to investigate the relationship of the severity of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction with precapillary and postcapillary pulmonary hypertension A-1331852 (PH) in an elderly heart failure (HF) population.
Methods and Results:
A post hoc analysis of the Trial of Intensified Medical Therapy in Elderly Patients With Congestive Heart Failure data was done. Baseline transthoracic echocardiography was used to categorize diastolic function, estimate pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and calculate the transpulmonary pressure gradient (TPG). Among 392 HF patients, PH was present in 31% of patients with grade 1, in 37% of patients with grade 2, and in 65% of patients with grade 3 diastolic dysfunction; 54% of all HF patients with PH had a TPG >12 mm Hg, suggesting not only a postcapillary but also an additional precapillary component of PH. Survival was Vorasidenib order not related to the severity of diastolic dysfunction, but was worse in patients with PH (hazard ratio 1.63, 95% confidence interval 1.07-2.51; P = .024).
Conclusions: Our data indicate that HF patients with even mild diastolic dysfunction often have PH. Echocardiographic assessment suggest that the presence of PH might not simply be due to increased PCWP, but in part due to a precapillary component.”
“Two designs of a microscale electron ionization (EI) source are analyzed herein: a 3-panel design and a 4-panel design. Devices were fabricated using microelectromechanical systems technology.