This article reviews the current status of sparganosis in mainlan

This article reviews the current status of sparganosis in mainland China. Increased public awareness about the risks associated with eating raw food and strengthened food safety measures are needed. (C) 2010 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The extract of the nut of Tetracarpidium conophorum (TC), commonly known Torin 1 as African walnut, is widely used to relieve pain, increase sperm count, enhance sexual performance in males and as a nerve tonic in ethnomedicine. This study describes the psychopharmacological properties of the aqueous extract of the nut of TC in mice. The spectrum of activities studied were the effects of TC on the duration of immobility in the

forced swim test of the behavioural despair model

of depression; prolongation of the duration of sleep produced by thiopentone; amphetamine-induced stereotyped behaviour; and on pain episodes produced by acetic acid and by formalin. Orally administered TC (50-200 mg/kg) produced a significant and dose-related decrease Selleck PS-341 in the duration of immobility in the forced swim test in mice. TC also exhibited analgesic property, as shown by its ability to reduce the frequency of abdominal constrictions induced by acetic acid and to inhibit the nociceptive responses produced by formalin. However, at the tested oral doses of 50-200 mg/kg, TC did not prolong the duration of sleep produced by thiopentone nor alter the pattern of the stereotyped behaviour induced by amphetamine. This investigation provides evidence that may support the ethnomedicinal applications of the extract of the nut of TC in the treatment of pain. The study also revealed that TC seems to demonstrate antidepressant-like activity, as evidenced by its ability to shorten Oligomycin A order the period of immobility in

the forced swim test; however, further studies are necessary to clearly define the role of TC in depression.”
“Background: The results of the ante-and neonatal diagnostic tests for congenital toxoplasmosis influence the decision to treat the newborn immediately after birth. Here, we estimate the positive and negative likelihood ratios (LRs) and the probabilities of congenital infection according to PCR and IgM-IgA tests results.

Methods: The study concerned 767 children born between 1996 and 2002 and followed-up for 1-year at Croix-Rousse hospital, Lyon, France. The LRs and the post-test probabilities were estimated conditionally on gestational age at maternal infection using a logistic regression approach.

Results: For the PCR and the IgM-IgA tests, the positive LRs were high. In children with one positive test when only one test was done, the probability of infection reached 90% when the maternal infection occurred at 18-weeks gestation or later. This probability was close to 100% when the 2 tests were positive, whatever the gestational age. The negative LRs of the 2 tests moved closer to 0 at later gestational ages.

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