This document attempts to familiarize the reader with recently proposed NICHD language in an effort to further advance the cause of utilizing common terminology and employing consistent, evidence-based, and simple interpretative systems selleck inhibitor among providers who use continuous CTG in their clinical practice. Personal review of the original NICHD workshop document cited below, along with any or all of the additional sources for this article, is strongly encouraged. Main Points Continuous cardiotocography (CTG) is the most commonly performed obstetric procedure in the United States. Usage of the standardized terminology developed by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) to describe intrapartum CTG can help reduce miscommunication among providers caring for the laboring patient and systematize the terminology used by researchers investigating intrapartum CTG.
Utilization of the recent interpretative systems and corresponding management strategies result in consistent, evidence-based responses to CTG patterns that are normal (Category I), abnormal (Category III), or indeterminate (Category II). Personal review of the original NICHD document is strongly encouraged.
Over the past 25 years, the human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as the etiologic agent driving much of the neoplasia observed in the lower female reproductive tract (Table 1).1�C3 HPV has been implicated in close to 100% of cervical cancers,4 up to 70% of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs)5 of the vulva, and 60% of SCCs of the vagina.
6 Given the high worldwide prevalence of preinvasive and invasive disease, cervical cancer has been the historical focus of extensive screening programs that began with the Papanicolaou test, and now continue with the emergence of vaccines that target the oncogenic strains of HPV known to cause the majority of cervical dysplasia and carcinoma. This recent recognition of oncogenic HPV as a key component of female lower genital tract malignancies has led to significant changes in many screening and prevention guidelines for cervical cancer, and, combined with the advent of vaccination, will likely have sweeping repercussions on the incidence of cervical, vulvar, and vaginal carcinoma. Table 1 Prevalence of HPV Infection by Lower Genital Tract Dysplasia and Malignancy This article focuses on the specific principles of cancer screening and prevention with an emphasis on HPV-mediated disease.
With this background, revamped strategies for cervical cancer screening and AV-951 prevention are presented, with a focus on the special dysplasia circumstances, the role of the HPV test, and the efficacy of vaccination against HPV. Finally, discussions of the literature linking HPV and vulvar and vaginal cancer are presented, along with the limitations of screening in these populations, thus expanding the implications of an effective HPV vaccination program.