5–5 years after first fracture Pain in 2 pts, 1 lateral side, 1 both sides Yes (all; 1 pt GIO) ALN alone (1.5–8) [3 pts] Ca (all), glucocorticoids (4), proton-pump inhibitors (7) Femoral shaft (1) ALN (3–10) switched to ibandronate (1 NK)g [3 pts] RIS (NK) switched to ALN (2) [1 pt] Pamidronate (5)h [1 pt] Armamento-Villareal et al.  US medical school/November 2004–March 2007 Low-energy fracture, mainly at cortical sites, 2 years’ BP therapy, bone biopsy 15 (12 females, 3 males) 43–75 Femoral shaft (7) [1 male] Yes (2) NR NR ALN (4–10) [6 pts] Ca (6); vitamin D (6); infliximab (1); triamcinolone (1); tamoxifen (1); levothyroxine (1); fluticasone (1); HCT (1); mometazone (1) Other (9)
RIS (2) [1 pt] Capeci and Tejwani  US university hospital/4 years Bilateral Alpelisib concentration low-energy femoral diaphyseal or YM155 ST fracture, long-term ALN 7 61 (53–75) Simultaneous femoral diaphysis (1) Cortical thickening, medial beaking (all) Yes (all) Thigh pain (4 pts with impending ST stress fractures) NR ALN (8.6 [5–13]) None affecting bone metabolism Sequential ST femur (2) ST and impending contralateral ST femur (3) Femoral diaphysis and impending contralateral ST femur (1) Bunning et al.  US rehabilitation hospital/7 years Atypical low- or no-impact femoral fracture 4 (1 male) 49–59 Diaphyseal femoral (3); left ST/right diaphyseal femoral (1) Medial cortical thickening
(1) 1 pt Pain in hip (1–3 months) [all], pain in knee [1 pt] Yes (all) None [1 patient] NR Pamidronate (0.5)/zoledronic acid 4 mg (>4.5) [1 pt] ALN (5) [1 pt] ALN (6) [1 pt] ALN alendronate, BP bisphosphonate, Ca calcium, GIO glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, HCT hydrochlorothiazide, NA not applicable (described in inclusion criteria), NK not known, NR not reported, OP osteoporosis,
Pt patient, RIS risedronate, ST subtrochanteric aIn the region of the femur which extended from the lesser trochanter to the junction of the proximal and middle third of the femoral shaft bWithin the region of the femur 5 cm distal to the lesser trochanter Janus kinase (JAK) cMuller AO classification type 32 and type 31 A3 fractures involving or extending distally to the lesser trochanter dNineteen had been treated with alendronate eTwenty-one had been treated with alendronate fAll females. Eighteen cases confirmed Stem Cells inhibitor through physician/patient contact. Duration of use established in 16 cases gOne patient had been on ibandronate for 1 year. One switched to ibandronate 4 months before first fracture in February 2006; one switched 1 year before second fracture in Jan 2008 hStopped 1 year before fracture Controlled studies Six studies that utilized control groups were identified that have investigated the association of subtrochanteric fractures with the use of bisphosphonates. In the study of Nieves et al. described above, the rate of subtrochanteric and femoral shaft fractures appeared to be higher than that of other fractures in women taking oral bisphosphonates (Fig.