Additionally, CFSE-labelled splenic CD4+ T lymphocytes from C57BL/6 mice treated with or without AZM for 3 days were cultured in MLR with allogeneic BALB/c BM-derived mDCs for 3 days. It was confirmed that expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and co-stimulatory molecules (CD40, CD80 and CD86) on LPS-induced mDCs was elevated in comparison with imDCs (data not shown). We did not observe any differences in the dividing CFSElow CD4+ population between AZM-treated and untreated C57BL/6 mice in the allogeneic MLR (Fig. 3c). These data indicate that AZM does not inhibit donor lymphocyte functions ex vivo at the tested doses. Novel immunomodulatory agents
focused on NF-κB in host DCs [6-11, 20-22, 31] instead of the selleck products conventional immunosuppressants targeted on donor T lymphocytes [1-5] have been reported to prevent or attenuate GVHD in allogeneic haematopoietic transplantation, including selleck chemicals llc in the histoincompatible setting. In this study, we used AZM – a macrolide antibiotic and a NF-κB inhibitor of murine DC maturation – alone for GVHD prophylaxis and showed that it inhibited acute GVHD significantly in MHC-incompatible bone marrow transplantation (BMT) without interfering with donor engraftment. AZM is active against a wide variety of bacteria and also acts as an anti-inflammatory agent by modulating the functions of DCs, monocytes
and/or macrophages [24, 35-37]. Previously, Sugiyama et al.  and our team  have reported that AZM inhibits the maturation and functions of murine bone marrow-derived DCs in vitro. We also showed that AZM, by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway in LPS-stimulated DCs and generating DCs with regulatory DC properties, blocks murine DC–T lymphocyte interaction in allogeneic immune systems . In murine allogeneic
BMT models, recipient-type regulatory DCs, characterized by low expression levels of co-stimulatory molecules, moderate levels of MHC molecules, low production of IL-12, high production of IL-10 and Clomifene suppression of NF-κB activity even after stimulation with LPS, inhibited acute GVHD, mediated partly by IL-10, as a key regulator of anti-inflammatory responses [38, 39]. Sato et al.  also found that recipient-type regulatory DCs increased donor-type regulatory T cells (Treg) which produced IL-10 and resulted in protection from lethal acute GVHD. Additionally, we reported significantly increased IL-10 levels in co-cultures of allogeneic T lymphocytes and AZM-treated DCs . The precise mechanisms underlying the findings presented in this report are unknown, because we did not analyse induction of Treg and/or plasma IL-10 of recipient mice treated with AZM, or for immunophenotypic or functional changes in DCs derived from recipients treated with AZM due to a numerical problem without in-vivo expansion stimulated with Flt3 ligand and/or other cytokines [11, 40, 41].