001) The mean tibial SOS value of infants with a history of olig

001). The mean tibial SOS value of infants with a history of oligohydroamniosis (n = 28) was also higher than those without oligohydroamniosis (n = 177) (p < 0.001). But, in SGA infants with a history of oligohydroamniosis (n = 17), the mean tibial SOS value was similar to those SGA infants without oligohydroamniosis (n = 26) (p > 0.05). Infants whose mothers had smoked during pregnancy (n = 18) had significantly higher tibial SOS values compared to those of whose mothers had not (n = 187) (p = 0.006). In addition, mean tibial SOS values were determined higher

in male infants (n = 116) compared to female infants (n = 89) (p = 0.036). There was a significant correlation between tibial SOS values and gestational age (r = 0.178, p = 0.011). Conclusions: While creating reference SB203580 supplier curves of SOS values at birth, smallness for gestational age, maternal smoking and gender as well as gestational Liproxstatin 1 age should be taken into

“The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of fenofibric acid, the main metabolite of fenofibrate (CAS 49562-28-9), and to assess the average bioequivalence of two immediate release formulations of 200 mg fenofibrate capsules in 24 healthy volunteers. The relative bioavailability of the test (generic) product Lipivim (R) with respect to the reference product was determined in a single dose, randomized, crossover study. Only the concentrations of fenofibric acid could be used for bioequivalence determination, because the concentrations of the parent drug were too low to be accurately measured buy Alvocidib in the biological matrix. The mean values for the C(max) were 3.08 (+/- 1.69) mu g/ml for the test and 3.05 (+/- 1.79) mu g/ml for the reference product. The mean values for the AUC(0-infinity) were 94.5 (+/- 41.5) mu g/ml h for the test and

88.2 (+/- 41.4) mu g/ml h for thereference, respectively. The 90% confidence intervals for test/reference mean ratios of the plasma pharmacokinetic variables C(max), AUC(0-1) and AUC(0-infinity) lie within the conventional bioequivalence range of 80-125% (Schuirman test). The difference between T, of the test and reference products was statistically non-significant (Friedman test). The test product is therefore bioequivalent to the reference product with respect to the rate and extent of fenofibric acid pharmacokinetics.”
“Aim: Communication between the healthcare team and the parents in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) is very important, and may affect both trust in medical team and the health of premature babies. The aim of this study is to confirm that a good relationship with families can be obtained if all the healthcare team adopts a good common communication scheme. Methods: We have implemented a communication strategy that works through three stages: (1) Training in Communication: a course about general problems with communication for medical and nursing staff.

06% The prevalence of rheumatic complaints in rural Iran is very

06%. The prevalence of rheumatic complaints in rural Iran is very high and needs attention in the curricula of medical schools and in the planning of rural health care by the government.”
“Administrative data provide a rich resource for improving our understanding of individuals with substance use disorders. The validation of administrative proxies

for moderate or high risk alcohol or drug (AOD) use could enhance the ability to carry out rigorous observational research (for example, for use in the construction of comparison groups). This study used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve techniques to assess how well AOD-related administrative indicators predicted self-reported AOD use obtained from AUDIT/DAST screening scores. An administrative AOD indicator, derived from a combination AZD9291 of medical encounter and billing data, arrest records, and publicly funded AOD-related services data, demonstrated discrimination in the acceptable range MK-1775 (AUC: 0.72-0.78) for identifying self-reported AOD use consistent with potential need for either (1) any AOD-related intervention, or (2) intensive AOD-related intervention or treatment. These findings held up in two distinct samples: a statewide Medicaid-only sample and a single-site mixed-payer

sample that included the uninsured. Our findings suggest that indicators of AOD-related problems derived from administrative data can be useful for identifying moderate or high risk AOD use in a research context. The findings further suggest that proxies for substance use disorders, such as those evaluated here, can enhance future observational studies intended to improve health care for this NVP-BSK805 order population. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Polyaniline salt was synthesized through the chemical oxidation

of aniline with sodium persulfate as the oxidant and didecyl ester of 4-sulfophthalic acid via three different polymerization pathways (aqueous, emulsion, and interfacial). In these polymerization processes, the ester acted as a novel plast dopant and as an emulsifier. The yield, conductivity, and number of ester units present in the polyaniline salts were determined. A polyaniline salt prepared by emulsion polymerization was soluble in chloroform and showed excellent solution-processing properties. Polyaniline samples prepared by aqueous or interfacial polymerization were not soluble in chloroform. A soluble polyaniline salt was successfully synthesized through the washing of an organic layer containing the polyaniline salt with water in emulsion polymerization. X-ray diffraction spectra of polyaniline salts prepared by the three different methods showed an ordered, layer-type supramolecular structure. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 118: 2704-2711, 2010″
“The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints and rheumatic disorders in Caucasians and Turks in an identical environment.

Summary of Background Data Spine surgery in the obese is challen

Summary of Background Data. Spine surgery in the obese is challenging and an increasing problem. There are few reported studies that have

assessed the incidence of perioperative complications in obese patients undergoing elective lumbar fusion procedures. To our www.selleckchem.com/products/ulixertinib-bvd-523-vrt752271.html knowledge, the effect of obesity on LI-PLIF and return to work has not been evaluated in the published data.

Methods. We identified 15 patients with BMI >30 who underwent LI-PLIF by reviewing the clinical notes and the preoperative admission sheet between April 2005 and March 2007. Patients who had suffered chronic low back pain for a minimum of 2 years that had proven unresponsive to conservative treatment were included. All patients underwent pre- and postoperative evaluations for Oswestry Disability Index, short-form 36, and visual analogue scores. Minimum follow-up was for 12 months.

Results. Blood loss was dependent on BMI, number of levels, and surgical time. Postoperative complication was 33.3%, which was more in the morbidly obese group than the in the obese ZD1839 clinical trial group. Ten patients (66.6%) returned to their normal preoperative employment within 12 months of the index procedure. There was a significant improvement in the Oswestry Disability Index (14.78 +/- 6.0, P = 0.03), in the visual analogue scores for back pain (3.2

+/- 0.76, P = 0.001). Length of hospital stay was a mean of 3.35 days (range, 1-7).

Conclusion. click here Surgical decision-making in the obese and morbidly obese patient is a challenge for the operating surgeon. Although surgery is technically more demanding, our experience with less invasive posterior interbody fusion has shown less incidence of postoperative complication, less intraoperative blood loss, and short in-patient hospital stay.

Furthermore (66.6%)

returned to their normal preoperative employment within 12 months of the index procedure. We conclude that a high BMI should not be a contraindication to surgery in patients with degenerative low back pain.”
“We describe a 2-year-old patient with an orbital lymphangioma who presented with massive proptosis. We highlight the importance of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating such patients, because physical examination can be misleading. We also demonstrate the difficulties of managing recurrent hemorrhages when only subtotal excision is possible, as is frequently the case. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010; 109: e82-e85)”
“PP/organoclay nanocomposites were prepared using different processing aids (EMCA and PPG), and their effects on the thermal and mechanical properties were evaluated by WAXD, TEM, SEM, DSC, and mechanical tests. This study helps to clarify the effects of processing aids on the organoclay surface and on the intercalation and exfoliation processes.

01) and relative humidity (P=0 06) but no correlation with precip

01) and relative humidity (P=0.06) but no correlation with precipitation and sea level pressure. On multivariate ARIMA analysis, only average monthly temperature was significantly associated with monthly urinary calculi presentation selleck chemicals llc rate among all comers (P<0.01). The crude correlations held true for both sexes with respect to

temperature but not for females in regard to relative humidity. The age groups of 21 to 44 and 45 to 64 had a rate correlation with temperature and all races correlated with temperature, but only Caucasians had a weak correlation with relative humidity.

Conclusions: This is the first study examining the role of climate on stone presentation rate in a large city above the Southern “”stone belt”" states. Temperature has a strong correlation with calculi presentation rate, and relative humidity has a trend toward overall calculi presentation

“Population analysis of brain morphology from magnetic resonance images contributes to the study and understanding of neurological diseases. Such analysis typically involves segmentation of a large set of images and comparisons of these segmentations between relevant subgroups of images ( e. g., “”normal”" versus “”diseased”"). The images of each subgroup are usually selected in advance in a supervised way based on clinical knowledge. Their segmentations are typically guided by one or more available atlases, assumed to be suitable for the images at hand. We present a data-driven

probabilistic framework that simultaneously performs atlas-guided segmentation selleck products of a heterogeneous set of brain MR images and clusters the images in homogeneous subgroups, while constructing separate probabilistic atlases for each cluster to guide the segmentation. The main benefits of integrating segmentation, clustering and atlas construction in a single framework are that: 1) our method can handle find more images of a heterogeneous group of subjects and automatically identifies homogeneous subgroups in an unsupervised way with minimal prior knowledge, 2) the subgroups are formed by automatical detection of the relevant morphological features based on the segmentation, 3) the atlases used by our method are constructed from the images themselves and optimally adapted for guiding the segmentation of each subgroup, and 4) the probabilistic atlases represent the morphological pattern that is specific for each subgroup and expose the groupwise differences between different subgroups. We demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed framework and evaluate its performance with respect to image segmentation, clustering and atlas construction on simulated and real data sets including the publicly available BrainWeb and ADNI data. It is shown that combined segmentation and atlas construction leads to improved segmentation accuracy.

The t(1/2) of JI-101 with intravenous and oral route was found to

The t(1/2) of JI-101 with intravenous and oral route was found to be 1.75 +/- 0.79 and 2.66 0.13h, respectively. The CI and Vd by intravenous route selleck screening library for JI-101 were found to be 13.0 +/- 2.62 mL/min/kg and 2.11 +/- 1.42 L/kg, respectively. The tissue distribution of JI-101 was extensive with rapid and preferred uptake into lung tissue. Overall, the oral bioavailability of JI-101 is 55% and the primary

route of elimination for JI-101 is feces.”
“AimWomen with imminent premature labor (IPL) are transported to a tertiary hospital equipped with neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) even during the night. However, there have been no extensive studies of the occurrence rate of night IPL. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence rate of night IPL in an area with a population of 2 million.

Materials and MethodsA retrospective analysis was conducted using data collected by the Sapporo Obstetric System for Emergency Patients launched in October 2008, in which women, physicians, and ambulance staff who sought appropriate PHA-848125 ic50 obstetric/gynecological facilities available in the night (19.00-06.00hours) were informed of candidate hospitals by coordinators through telephone consultation. This system covered the Sapporo area, which has a population of 2000000 and 17000 births annually. Approximately 14% and 86% of women received antenatal care at six and 35 obstetric

facilities with and without NICU, respectively, in this area. Night IPL was defined as a threatened premature labor and transport to one of six tertiary this website hospitals with NICU between 19.00 and 06.00hours the next morning.

ResultsDuring a 4-year period from 1 October 2008 to 30 September 2012, the Sapporo Obstetric System for Emergency Patients received 15823 (mean +/- standard deviation) monthly telephone

consultations (range 114-218 per month). The monthly number of patients with night IPL was 3.0 +/- 2.2 (range 0-9 per month).

ConclusionsThe monthly number of cases of night IPL was around three among women who received antenatal care at obstetrics facilities without NICU in an area with a population of 2000000.”
“Maternal microchimerism (MMc) has been purported to play a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity, but how a small number of foreign cells could contribute to chronic, systemic inflammation has not been explained. Reports of peripheral blood cells differentiating into tissue-specific cell types may shed light on the problem in that chimeric maternal cells could act as target cells within tissues. We investigated MMc in tissues from 7 male infants. Female cells, presumed maternal, were characterized by simultaneous immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization for X- and Y-chromosomes Maternal cells constituted 0.017% to 1.9% of parenchymal cells and were found in all infants in liver, pancreas, lung, kidney, bladder, skin, and spleen.

Moreover, histologic findings

Moreover, histologic findings buy Momelotinib suggest that the major portion of nodules arising within PWS can be categorized

into AVM, PG, and AVH associated with PG.”
“Background: In trauma patients, open reduction and internal fixation of rib fractures remain controversial. We hypothesized that patients who have open reduction and internal fixation of rib fractures would experience less pain compared with controls and thus require fewer opiates. Further, we hypothesized that improved pain control would result in fewer pulmonary complications and decreased length of stay.

Methods: This is a retrospective bi-institutional matched case-control study. Cases were matched 1: 2 by age, injury severity Score, chest abbreviated injury severity score, head abbreviated injury severity score, pulmonary contusion score, and number of fractured ribs. The daily total doses of PFTα analgesic drugs were converted to equianalgesic intravenous morphine doses, and the primary outcome was inpatient narcotic administration.

Results: Sixteen patients between July 2005 and June 2009 underwent rib fixation in 5 +/- 3 days after injury using an average of 3 (1-5) metallic plates. Morphine requirements decreased from 110 mg +/- 98 mg preoperatively to 63 +/- 57 mg postoperatively (p =

0.01). There were no significant differences between cases and controls in the mean morphine dose (79 +/- 63 vs. 76 +/- 55 mg, p = 0.65), hospital stay (18 +/- 12 vs. 16 +/- 11 days, p = 0.67), intensive care unit stay (9 +/- 8 vs. 7 +/- 10 days, p = 0.75), ventilation days (7 +/- 8 vs. 6 +/- 10, p = 0.44), and pneumonia rates (31% vs. 38%, p = 0.76).

Conclusion: The need for analgesia was significantly reduced after rib fixation in patients with multiple rib fractures. However, no difference in outcomes was observed when these patients were PF-04929113 purchase compared with matched controls in this

pilot study. Further study is required to investigate these preliminary findings.”
“Background and Purpose: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is regarded as the gold standard for the treatment of patients with renal stones larger than 2 cm in diameter. Creating a percutaneous renal access is the initial and probably the most important step in performing a PCNL. Two primary methods of obtaining proper percutaneous renal access under fluoroscopic guidance are described: The “”triangulation” and the “”eye of the needle” techniques. In this article, we compare these two techniques in terms of success and complication rates.

Patients and Methods: From October 2010 to May 2011, 80 patients with simple renal stones were prospectively randomized into two groups according to the percutaneous renal access technique used for PCNL. Patients in group 1 (n = 40) were assigned to the eye of the needle technique, and patients in group 2 (n = 40) were assigned to the triangulation method. Patients needing multiple access points were excluded from the study.

The RHS and LHS groups did not differ on the IMD The IMD was neg

The RHS and LHS groups did not differ on the IMD. The IMD was negatively correlated with all neuropsychological test scores in the LHS group. In the RHS group, the IMD was not significantly correlated with any of the neuropsychological measures. There were no significant correlations in the RHS group. Regression analyses suggested that IMD score explained 3% of variance in the measures of intellect,

but 8% of the variance in verbal learning in the LHS group. The IMD explained 1% or less of the variance in neuropsychological scores in the RHS group. Controlling for overall level of intellectual function, the IMD score explained a small but significant Selleckchem BYL719 proportion of the variance in verbal learning in the LHS group and visual learning for the RHS group.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that patients living in an area with a high IMD enter surgery with greater focal deficits associated https://www.selleckchem.com/products/BIBF1120.html with their epilepsy and more widespread cognitive deficits if they have LHS. Further work is needed to establish the direction of the relationship between low socioeconomic status and the neurocognitive

sequelae of epilepsy. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“In the spin-valve Co(4 angstrom)/Pt(36 angstrom)/[Co(4 angstrom)/Pt(6 angstrom)](n) multilayers with perpendicular anisotropy, an oscillatory variation of the anomalous Hall resistivity and longitudinal resistivity has been observed with the increase in the repetition number n, and it is almost temperature-independent. The anomalous Hall resistivity is fitted by a new scaling which includes the residual resistivity, i.e., rho(AH) – a’rho(xx0) + b rho(2)(xx). a’ changes MI-503 inhibitor nonmonotonically with the repetition number n, while b oscillates as a function of n. These observed

oscillatory behaviors of rho(xx), b, and rho(AH) can be mainly attributed to the Co/Pt interface scattering. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3622518]“
“Background: Patient device acceptance might be essential in identifying patients at risk for adverse patient-reported outcomes following implantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). We examined the validity and reliability of the Florida Patient Acceptance Scale (FPAS) and identified correlates of device acceptance in a Dutch cohort of ICD patients.

Methods: Patients with a first-time ICD (N = 272, mean age = 59.2 +/- 11.9, 82% men) recruited from the Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, or the Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands completed the FPAS, the Type D Scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.

Results: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated that eliminating three items from the FPAS, leaving 12 items contributing to three factors, is equivalent to the original four-factor version of the FPAS. The abbreviated FPAS had a high internal consistency both for the total scale and all subscales, with Cronbach’s alphas ranging from 0.76 to 0.82. Anxiety (odds ratio [OR]: 9.

It has been proposed that, among other risk factors, the nutritio

It has been proposed that, among other risk factors, the nutritional status of women can lead to the endothelial dysfunction that characterizes this entity. The aim of the present

study was to compare the nutritional status of women with PE with healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.

Material and Methods: A multicenter case-control study was carried out. Between September 2006 and July 2009, 201 women with PE were compared with 201 pregnant, and 201 non-pregnant aged-matched women without cardiovascular or endocrine diseases. A clinical history and physical examination was performed. Fasting blood samples were drawn to measure serum glucose and lipid profile. The nutritional status of participants was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire.

Results: The average age of womenwas 26.6 +/- RG-7388 7.2 years. Compared to healthy pregnant controls, women with PE had a higher body mass index, higher fasting blood glucose levels, higher triglycerides, and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Women with PE had a higher intake of carbohydrates, energy

intake and cereal compared to healthy pregnant and non-pregnant controls. A conditional logistic regression demonstrated that carbohydrate and sodium intake are associated with PE development.

Conclusions: Diets of women with PE were characterized by higher energy and carbohydrate intake compared to normal pregnant and non-pregnant women. This suggests that higher carbohydrate and sodium intake increases the risk of PE among women in Colombia.”
“We describe the selleck chemical clinical, https://www.selleckchem.com/products/BI6727-Volasertib.html histological, and immunohistochemical features of primary intraocular primitive neuroectodermal tumors in eight dogs. Four of eight tumors exhibited histological features similar to human retinoblastomas characterized by Flexner-Wintersteiner rosettes, and fleurettes, and demonstrated variable immunoreactivity for retinal markers opsin, S-antigen (S-Ag) and interphotoreceptor

retinoid-binding protein (IRBP). All dogs with tumors displaying histological and immunohistochemical features of retinal differentiation were 2years of age. All tumors diagnosed as medulloepitheliomas (n=4) did not display histological and immunohistochemical features of retinal differentiation and were present in dogs 7years or older. Age of onset, in conjunction with immunohistochemistry for opsin, S-Ag, and IRBP, is an important aid in the differentiation of primary, primitive neuroectodermal tumors arising within the canine ciliary body, retina, and optic papilla.”
“Purpose of review

This review highlights recent research findings, including their clinical application, for insoles and footwear in knee osteoarthritis. In particular, it examines their effect on knee osteoarthritis symptoms and disease progression.

Recent findings

Increased joint loading increases the risk of osteoarthritis progression, but is amenable to change.

These findings were consistent with the posterior reversible ence

These findings were consistent with the posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. We report our conventional magnetic resonance and diffusion-weighted imaging findings and briefly discuss the pathophysiology of the syndrome.”
“Objective-To determine whether administration of 2 doses of a multivalent, modified-live virus vaccine prior to breeding of heifers would provide protection against abortion and fetal infection following exposure of pregnant heifers to cattle persistently infected LY294002 (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and cattle with acute bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) infection.

Design-Randomized controlled clinical trial.


crossbred beef heifers, 3 steers, 6 bulls, and 25 calves.

Procedures-20 of 22 vaccinated and 10 of 11 unvaccinated heifers became pregnant and were

commingled with 3 steers PI with BVDV type 1a, 1b, or 2 for 56 days beginning 102 days after the second vaccination (administered 30 days after the first vaccination). Eighty days following HDAC inhibitor removal of BVDV-PI steers, heifers were commingled with 3 bulls with acute BHV1 infection for 14 days.

Results-After BVDV exposure, 1 fetus (not evaluated) was aborted by a vaccinated heifer; BVDV was detected in 0 of 19 calves from vaccinated heifers and in all 4 fetuses (aborted after BHV1 exposure) and 6 calves from unvaccinated heifers. Bovine herpesvirus 1 was not detected in any 3 Methyladenine fetus or calf and associated fetal membranes in either treatment group. Vaccinated heifers had longer gestation periods and calves with greater birth weights, weaning weights, average daily gains, and market value at weaning, compared with those for calves born to unvaccinated heifers.


and Clinical Relevance-Prebreeding administration of a modified-live virus vaccine to heifers resulted in fewer abortions and BVDV-PI offspring and improved growth and increased market value of weaned calves. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2012;241:484-495)”
“The defect structure of Ge(111) epilayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on cubic Pr2O3(111)/Si(111) support systems was investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy and laboratory-based x-ray diffraction techniques. Three main types of defects were identified, namely, rotation twins, microtwins, and stacking faults, and studied as a function of Ge film thickness and after annealing at 825 degrees C in ultrahigh vacuum. Rotation twins were found to be localized at the Ge(111)/cubic Pr2O311 (1) over bar interface and their amount could be lowered by the thermal treatment. Microtwins across 11 (1) over bar were detected only in closed Ge films, after Ge island coalescence.


core clinical categories and a subclassificat


core clinical categories and a subclassification were developed to give an alphanumeric coding to each definition. An extensive process of 15 rounds of internal and external review was developed to exhaustively examine each definition, with decision-making by collective opinion (consensus).

A IWR-1-endo terminology report for female pelvic floor dysfunction, encompassing over 250 separate definitions, has been developed. It is clinically based with the six most common diagnoses defined. Clarity and user-friendliness have been key aims to make it interpretable by practitioners and trainees in all the different specialty groups involved in female pelvic floor dysfunction. Female-specific imaging (ultrasound, radiology, and MRI) has been a major addition while appropriate figures have been included to supplement and help clarify the text. Ongoing review is not only anticipated but will be required to keep the document updated and as widely acceptable as possible.

A consensus-based terminology report for female pelvic floor dysfunction has been produced aimed at being a significant aid to

clinical practice and a stimulus for research.”
“Study Design. Controlled, interventional, animal study.

Objective. To observe the reaction of glial Cl-amidine ic50 cells and endoneurial macrophages in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) after application of nucleus pulposus (NP) and investigate whether activated DRG glial cells play a role in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain.

Summary of Background Data. Peripheral nerve injury activated DRG and spinal cord glial cells and several cytokines and neurotrophins released from these activated glial cells might induce pain hypersensitivity.

Methods. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. NP harvested from the tail was applied to the left L5 DRG. Behavioral testing was performed to investigate the mechanical withdrawal threshold. The numbers of activated satellite glial cells and endoneurial macrophages were counted, and the expressions of tumor Selleckchem R406 necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)

and glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor ( GDNF) were examined by double-labeled immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting.

Results. The mechanical withdrawal threshold was significantly decreased for 28 days and then gradually recovered (P < 0.05). Long-term activation of endoneurial macrophages and satellite glial cells in the DRG was observed, and the reactions of these cells correlated well with pain-related behavior. TNF-alpha was expressed in both endoneurial macrophages and activated satellite glial cells, and TNF-alpha expression was significantly increased in the early stage (P < 0.05). Activated satellite glial cells also expressed GDNF, and its expression was significantly increased and persisted for 28 days (P < 0.05).