“Background: Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) has recent

“Background: Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) has recently been implicated as a common cause of croup in children. This study was performed to evaluate viruses associated with croup in children, with an emphasis on HCoV-NL63.

Methods: Nasopharyngeal aspirates were prospectively collected from

182 children hospitalized with croup at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital from January 2005 to June 2009. Multiplex reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was conducted for detection of 11 respiratory viruses, and medical records were reviewed.

Results: Viruses were identified in 147 (80.8%) of the 182 croup patients. The 3 most commonly detected viruses were parainfluenza virus type 1 (PIV1) in 44 (24.2%) patients, HCoV-NL63 in 30 (16.5%) patients, PFTα chemical structure and influenza A virus in 25 (13.7%) patients. Other detected viruses were rhinovirus in 22 (12.1%) patients, PIV type 3 and respiratory syncytial virus in 15 (8.2%) patients, human bocavirus in 8 (4.4%) patients, and several others in a few patients. Coinfections with >2 viruses were found in 20 (11%) patients. HCoV-NL63 was identified primarily www.selleckchem.com/products/btsa1.html in winter, which coincides with the peak occurrence of croup. Patients with HCoV-NL63 infection were younger than those who were positive for PIV1 (median age 13 months versus 21 months, P = 0.006) and had shorter fever duration than influenza A virus infection (median 1.5

days versus 4 days, P = 0.000).

Conclusions: PIV1 and HCoV-NL63 were most Sotrastaurin ic50 commonly associated with patients who were

hospitalized with croup. HCoV-NL63 is prevalent in winter and is associated with younger age and with shorter fever duration.”
“Introduction and hypothesis This study was conducted to assess national rates in stress urinary incontinence (SUI) surgery in the USA from 1998 to 2007. Methods We utilized the 1998-2007 Nationwide Inpatient Sample and assessed women aged 20 years and older who underwent SUI surgery based on the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) procedure and diagnosis codes.

Results The total number of SUI surgeries performed during this 10-year period was 759,821. The annual number of procedures increased from 37,953 in 1998 to 94,910 in 2007. The type of SUI surgery performed also changed (p<0.001). In 1998, retropubic suspensions represented 52.3%, decreasing to 13.8% in 2007. “”Other repair of SUI”" (ICD-9 59.79) comprised 22.4% in 1998, increasing to 75.2% in 2007, likely representing midurethral slings.

Conclusions The total number and incidence rates of SUI surgeries have increased from 1998 to 2007. The type of SUI surgery performed has also changed significantly, likely secondary to adoption of midurethral slings.”
“Introduction: Unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSC) derived from umbilical cord blood are an attractive alternative to human embryonic stem cells (hESC) for cellular therapy.

In contrast, in the abscission zone, accumulation of MiETR1

In contrast, in the abscission zone, accumulation of MiETR1 high throughput screening assay transcript remained unchanged;

a temporal increase in MiETR1 transcript level was observed in the fruitlet mesocarp, whereas in the seed, MiETR1 expression had already dropped by 24 h. Expression profiles of MiERS1 and MiETR1 were then studied during fruit ripening. In agreement with a previous study and coinciding with the climacteric rise in ethylene production, RNA blot analysis revealed that during fruit ripening, MiETR1 mRNA level increases in both mesocarp and seed tissues. Unexpectedly, however, in those same tissues. MiERS1 transcript accumulation was barely detected. Collectively, our data highlight MiERS1′s possible specific function in regulating fruitier abscission find more rather than fruit ripening. (C) 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“To evaluate the predisposing factors, diagnosis and surgical treatment options of patients with intra-abdominal, mislocated intrauterine devices (IUDs).

The diagnosis and management of 18 patients with intra-abdominal, mislocated IUDs were analyzed in this retrospective study.

Trained midwives inserted ten (55%) of the IUDs, while six (33%) were inserted by general practitioners and two (11%) by specialist gynecologists. Ten (55.5%) of the patients were diagnosed by gynecological

examination and ultrasonography (USG); abdominal X-ray, in addition, was required in the other eight (44.4%). Eleven patients (61%) were managed by laparoscopy, whereas laparotomy was required in seven (39%). For all patients, laparoscopy was performed initially. No complication was encountered in any of the patients.

Persons who insert IUDs should receive adequate training before certification, because inadequate pelvic examination before insertion and inexperience of the inserting

person might be predisposing factors for uterine perforation. If IUD strings are not visible during gynecologic examination, USG should be tried to locate the IUD and pelvic X-ray used only when USG fails to locate the IUD. Laparoscopy Selleck BI-D1870 can be the first choice for removal.”
“Both experiments with deeply penetrating femtosecond laser pulses and theoretical analysis demonstrate that at low laser fluences on (111) and ((1) over bar(1) over bar(1) over bar) surfaces of n-doped GaAs semiconductors the hypersound generation mechanism is the inverse piezoelectric effect. The transient electric field causing the inverse piezoelectric effect is due to the spatial separation in the built-in near-surface electric field of the electrons and holes photoexcited directly in the depletion region and also of those photoexcited outside the depletion region and diffusing toward it.

Methods: A retrospective analysis with statistical review of 201,

Methods: A retrospective analysis with statistical review of 201,513 diabetic patients enrolled in a regional health maintenance organization in 2007 was performed. Analysis included determining the relationship between the prevalence of frozen shoulder and the following factors: HbA(1c) level,

type of diabetes treatment, duration of diabetes treatment, and presence of end-stage diabetic manifestations.

Results: There were 1150 diabetic patients with a diagnosis of frozen shoulder. There was no significant relationship between HbA(1c) level and the prevalence of frozen shoulder. Insulin-dependent patients who used or did not use oral hypoglycemics were 1.93 times more likely than non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients to have frozen shoulder, and that rate increased to 1.96 times more likely when the results were adjusted for HbA(1c) level. Patients who were taking oral hypoglycemic drugs were 1.5 times more likely to develop frozen shoulder than selleck chemicals llc those

who did not use insulin or take oral hypoglycemic drugs. Duration of diabetes was also associated with the development of frozen shoulder, after controlling for insulin use (odds ratio: 1.85 for duration of more than ten years of use compared with less than five years of use). The prevalence of end-stage diabetic manifestations was click here increased in patients with frozen shoulder as compared with those without frozen shoulder (p < 0.0001).

Conclusion: Pitavastatin solubility dmso There was no association found between HbA(1c) level

and the prevalence of frozen shoulder in this diabetic population.”
“The triple probe technique has been used to study the parameters of flowing plasma plume formed by laser-blow-off (LBO) of a multicomponent LiF-C target. The advantages of triple Langmuir probe over the single probe have been discussed with regard to the present study. Our results show that triple probe is better suited for parametric measurements close to the target. The spatiotemporal evolutions of electron density and temperature were measured in different ambient environments and for various laser fluences. The angular distribution of electron density and temperature was also measured. It was found that the presence of ambient gas drastically affects the electron density and temperature of the LBO plume. Large enhancement in n(e) and T(e) at intermediate pressures (10(-2) Torr) is expected due to increase in collisional processes. On the other hand, laser fluence does not affect the observed n(e) and T(e) significantly. In vacuum, a new phenomenon, i.e., an oscillation in the trailing portion of the plasma plume at a closer distance from the target, is also reported. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3204946]“
“Background and aims: Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is regarded as a transient metabolic state leading to type-2 diabetes, and is known to predict future risk of cardiovascular disease.

“Symptomatic upper-extremity deep venous thrombosis (UEDVT

“Symptomatic upper-extremity deep venous thrombosis (UEDVT) after pacemaker placement in adults has been reported, but the occurrence of UEDVT in pediatric patients is poorly defined, and

no treatment guidelines exist. This report describes a 14-year old girl with a history of complete atrioventricular block who experienced a symptomatic UEDVT 8 months after placement of a transvenous pacemaker. The girl was treated initially with anticoagulation including subcutaneous enoxaparin and a heparin drip, which did not resolve the venous obstruction. In the interventional laboratory, a venogram demonstrated complete obstruction of the left subclavian vein, which was treated successfully with catheter-directed alteplase, direct thrombus Z-VAD-FMK BAY 73-4506 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor removal by manual suctioning, and balloon angioplasty. Warfarin therapy was continued for an additional 6 months, with follow-up venous ultrasounds demonstrating left subclavian

vein patency. Soon after completing warfarin therapy, the girl presented with minimal edema of her left distal extremity and was thought to have post-thrombotic syndrome, which resolved quickly. She continued to receive aspirin therapy, with no recurrence of symptoms. In conclusion, symptomatic UEDVT after pacemaker placement in a pediatric patient can be treated successfully with both anticoagulation and interventional therapies. Further studies are needed to evaluate the incidence of thrombus formation among children with transvenous pacemaker placement together with the development of guidelines based on the safety and effectiveness of differing treatments.”
“Purpose of review

Hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) linked to leukocyte recruitment and subsequent release of cytokines and free radicals remains a significant complication in organ transplantation. The aim of this review is to bring attention to advances made in our understanding see more of the mechanisms of leukocyte recruitment to sites of inflammatory stimulation in liver IRI.



Leukocyte transmigration across endothelial and extracellular matrix barriers is dependent on adhesive events, as well as on focal matrix degradation mechanisms. Whereas adhesion molecules are critical for the successful promotion of leukocyte transmigration by providing leukocyte attachment to the vascular endothelium, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are important for facilitating leukocyte movement across vascular barriers. Among different MMPs, MMP-9, an inducible gelatinase expressed by leukocytes during hepatic IRI, is emerging as an important mediator of leukocyte traffic to inflamed liver.


It is generally accepted that the understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in leukocyte recruitment will lead to the development of novel targeted therapeutic approaches for hepatic IRI and liver transplantation.

Since a large release of fetal adrenaline occurs late in labor st

Since a large release of fetal adrenaline occurs late in labor stimulating ENaC to start reabsorbing lung fluids, aerolized beta-agonists may be used in the treatment. Genetic predisposition for beta-adrenergic hyporesponsiveness may cause TTN in newborn period, and asthma/wheezing in older age groups. Although furosemide accelerates lung fluid resorption and cause pulmonary

vasodilatation, oral or aerosolized furosemide cannot be recommended as treatment for TTN unless additional data become available.</.”
“Background/Aims: The hypothesis that dialytic modality affects arterial stiffness was never investigated. This study includes comparative evaluation of hemodiafiltration versus hemodialysis on arterial function during first and second weekly dialysis sessions. Methods: 24 patients receiving hemodiafiltration Napabucasin and another 24 age- and sex-matched controls receiving hemodialysis were included. Patients were evaluated before and after first and second weekly dialysis sessions. Applanation tonometry of peripheral arteries was applied to determine aortic and brachial pulse wave velocity and heart

rate-adjusted augmentation index (AIx(75)). Results: Hemodiafiltration and hemodialysis reduced AIx(75), but not aortic and brachial pulse wave velocity. Intradialytic reductions in AIx(75) did not differ between hemodiafiltration and hemodialysis in first and mid-week dialysis. In multivariate linear regression, predictors of intradialytic reduction in AIx(75) were changes in body weight and central Mizoribine aortic systolic blood pressure, but not dialytic modality. Conclusion:

This study showed that hemodiafiltration selleck screening library has similar effects with hemodialysis on wave reflections and stiffness. (C) 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and wound-healing activities of the protease isolated from the latex of Plumeria rubra Linn.

Methods: The protease was isolated from the latex of the plant by acetone precipitation method and given a trivial name, Plumerin-R. The anti-inflammatory activity of the protease was based on its effects on carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats. Its wound healing effect was investigated using an excision wound rat model.

Results: Four hours after treatment, the reduction in carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema by 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg body weight of plumerin-R was 21.6, 33.8 and 48.8 %, respectively, while oedema reduction by indomethacin (10 mg/kg) was 58.0 %. Plumerin-R showed significant (p < 0.05) wound closure and epithelialization time compared with control.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the protease, Plumerin-R, has significant anti-inflammatory and wound-healing properties.”
“Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L) is a summer, annual, legume crop primarily grown as an industrial crop for the galactomannans content of its seeds. Guar is grown in India. Pakistan and USA, but no cultivation has of yet been established in a Mediterranean environment.

To determine whether BMD-loci are also associated with OF risk, w

To determine whether BMD-loci are also associated with OF risk, we performed a validation study to examine 23 BMD-loci reported by recent genome-wide association studies for association with hip OF risk. Our sample consisted of 700 elderly Chinese Han subjects, 350 with hip OF and 350 healthy matched controls. We identified four BMD-loci that were significantly associated with hip OF in this Chinese population, including 7q21 (FLJ42280, P = 1.17 x 10(-4) for rs4729260; P = 0.008 for rs7781370), 6p21 (MHC, P = 0.004 for rs3130340), 13q14 (TNFSF11, P = 0.012 for rs9533090; P = 0.018 for rs9594759; P = 0.020 for rs9594738; P = 0.044 for rs9594751), and 18q21 (TNFRSF11A, P = 0.015 for rs884205).

The SNP rs4729260 at 7q21 remained significantly associated,

even after selleck kinase inhibitor conservative Bonferroni’s correction. Our results further highlight the importance of these loci in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, and demonstrate that it is feasible and useful to use OF as the direct phenotype to conduct genetic studies, to enhance our understanding of the genetic architecture of osteoporosis.”
“In this 2-part overview, the current status of phakic intraocular lens (pIOL) surgery to correct refractive errors is reviewed Three types of pIOLs, categorized by their intraocular position, are included angle-supported anterior chamber, iris-fixated anterior chamber, and posterior chamber (usually fixated in the ciliary sulcus) Part 1 reviews the main models of each pIOL type, the selection criteria, and the surgical techniques, with emphasis on currently LDK378 cost available pIOLs Bioptics, adjustable refractive surgery, and enhancements are addressed, and applications of the new anterior segment imaging techniques are reviewed”
“We examined genetic differences of four Vitis vinifera populations (A, B, C, D) including local Kabarcik cultivar grown along an altitude gradient of 800, 900, 1000,

and 1150 m above sea level in the Coruh Valley (800 m: A population; 900 m: B population; 1000 m: C population; 1150 m: D population). Leaf samples were used for both RAPD and fatty acid analysis. A total click here of 60 individuals with 15 individuals per population were included in this study. RAPD analyses showed various band sizes, which ranged from 250 to 3000 bp. Mean polymorphic locus ratios were determined as 96.29% considering four populations. The highest percentage of polymorphic loci (97.8%) was produced by the highest altitude. Thirty-two different fatty acids were found; linoleic acid was the most common in all four populations. According to the dendograms obtained from statistical analyses of RAPD and fatty acid profiles the populations that were close to each other in terms of geographical distance also were similar genetically.”
“We present a theory of second phase conductive filaments in phase transformable systems; applications include threshold switches, phase change memory, resistive memory, and shunting in thin film structures.

Glutathione S-transferase placental form-positive foci were evalu

Glutathione S-transferase placental form-positive foci were evaluated by immunostaining for glutathione 5-transferase placental form. The remaining rats were maintained for evaluation of survival. There were no significant differences of serum transaminases, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and

also no marked hepatic histological differences, between the two groups. Pevonedistat cell line However, the size of hepatocellular carcinomas was greatly decreased and the levels of activated matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 were significantly reduced in the Kurozu moromimatsu group. Further, survival was significantly prolonged in the Kurozu moromimatsu group compared with the control. These results indicate that Kurozu moromimatsu inhibited the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma.”
“Background In pain conditions, active coping has been found to be associated with less severe depression, increased activity

level and less functional impairment. Studies indicate that there is a high expectation for chronic disability following a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. The objective of this study was to compare both the expectations and the coping style for rheumatoid arthritis in disease-naive subjects.

Methods The Vanderbilt Pain Management Inventory was administered to university students. Subjects who had not yet experienced rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and did not know a person with RA were given a vignette concerning a new onset diagnosis of RA and were asked to indicate how likely they were to have thoughts or behaviours indicated in the coping style questionnaire. Subjects also completed expectations regarding daily functioning according to the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) PCI-32765 for RA.

Results The mean active coping style

score for RA was 27.3 +/- 4.6 (40 is the maximum score for active coping). The mean passive coping style score was 26.2 +/- 7.0 (50 is the maximum score for passive coping). Those with high passive coping styles had a higher mean expectation score (higher HAQ score) of disability from rheumatoid arthritis. The correlation between passive coping Small molecule library style score and expectation score was 0.48, while the correlation between active coping style score and expectation was -0.34.

Conclusions Both expectations and coping styles may interact or be co-modifiers in the outcomes of RA patients. Further studies of coping styles and expectations in RA are required.”
“This work deals with preparation, characterization, and performance of electro-conductive yarns prepared by in situ chemical and electrochemical polymerization of pyrrole. Box-Behnken design in conjunction with response surface analysis has been used to study the electrochemical polymerization process. The effect of electrochemical process parameters on the electrical resistivity has been reported. Further, the electrical and electromechanical behaviour of the electro-conductive yarns thus produced has also been reported. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Ninety point nine percent of patients with unilateral TLE and 41

Ninety point nine percent of patients with unilateral TLE and 41.7% of patients with bilateral TLE (including 50% of MRI-negative bilateral TLE) became seizure-free. The MRS findings were not correlated with seizure outcome, while non-seizure-free patients had an insignificantly higher percentage of contralateral N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) reduction compared with seizure-free patients, indicating the relatively low predictive value of H-1-MRS for surgical outcome. Further, Nocodazole supplier EEG and icEEG findings were significantly

correlated with seizure outcome, and for patients with positive MRI, MRI findings were also correlated with seizure outcome, indicating the predictive value of these modalities. The results suggested that a multimodal approach including neuroimaging, EEG, and/or icEEG could identify seizure focus in most cases, and provide surgical options for non-lesional

or bilateral TLE patients with a possible good outcome.”
“The aims of the research were to (a) compare the alcohol attentional bias (AAB) of social, hazardous, and harmful drinkers and (b) assess the effects of alcohol attention-control training on the AAB and alcohol consumption of hazardous and harmful drinkers, Participants were social drinkers (N=40), hazardous drinkers (N=89), and harmful drinkers (N=92). Paper-and-pencil measures were used to collect information selleck chemicals llc about participants’ socio-demographic characteristics, health status, motivational structure, drinking-related locus of control and situational self-confidence, readiness to

change, affect, and alcohol consumption. Computerized classic, alcohol- and concerns-Stroop tests were administered. All participants were tested individually, with the order of tests counterbalanced across participants. After the baseline assessment, the hazardous and harmful drinkers were trained with the Alcohol Attention-Control Training Program (AACTP) for two and four sessions, respectively. Both samples completed a post-training assessment, and the harmful drinkers also completed 3-month follow-up. Results indicated that (a) the harmful drinkers had larger AAB than the hazardous and the social Linsitinib chemical structure drinkers; (b) the attentional training reduced the hazardous and harmful drinkers’ AAB; and (c) the harmful drinkers showed post-training reductions in alcohol consumption and improvements on the other drinking-related indices. The harmful drinkers’ improvements were maintained at the 3-month follow-up. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Three EPMEs based on maltodextrins with different dextrose equivalent (DE) values [I (4.0-7.0), II (13.0-17.0) and III (16.5-19.5)], were designed for the determination of L-vesamicol.

Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonst

Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the predictive

value Selleck LY3023414 of the fulcrum bending radiograph in the context of alternate-level pedicle screw fixation in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Curve flexibility may dictate the degree of the fulcrum bending correction index, whereby a curve that is less flexible may achieve a greater fulcrum bending correction index. The fulcrum bending radiograph has potential predictive utility. In addition, pedicle screw constructs appear to have a better ability to correct scoliosis in comparison with hooks and hybrid constructs.”
“Objective: Meniscus injury increases the risk of osteoarthritis; however, the biologic mechanism remains unknown. We hypothesized that pro-inflammatory stimulation of meniscus would increase production of matrix-degrading enzymes, cytokines and chemokines which cause joint tissue destruction and could contribute to osteoarthritis development.

Design: Meniscus and cartilage tissue from healthy tissue donors and total knee arthroplasties (TICAs) was cultured. Primary

cell cultures 17-AAG Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor were stimulated with pro-inflammatory factors IlL-113, IL-6, or fibronectin fragments (FnF)] and cellular responses were analyzed by real-time PCR, protein arrays and immunoblots. To determine if NF-KB was required for MMP production, meniscus cultures were treated with inflammatory factors with and without the NF-KB inhibitor, hypoestoxide.

Results: Normal and osteoarthritic meniscus cells increased their MMP secretion in response to stimulation, but specific patterns emerged that were unique to each

stimulus with the greatest number of MMPs expressed in response to FnF. Meniscus collagen and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene expression was reduced. Expression of cytokines IL-1 beta, IL-6), chemokines (IL-8, CXCL1, CXCL2, CSF1) and components of the NF-KB and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family were significantly Compound C cell line increased. Cytokine and chemokine protein production was also increased by stimulation. When primary cell cultures were treated with hypoestoxide in conjunction with pro-inflammatory stimulation, p65 activation was reduced as were MMP-1 and MMP-3 production.

Conclusions: Pro-inflammatory stimulation of meniscus cells increased matrix metalloproteinase production and catabolic gene expression. The meniscus could have an active biologic role in osteoarthritis development following joint injury through increased production of cytokines, chemokines, and matrixdegrading enzymes. (C) 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Streptomycin is a common contaminant in a variety of industrial and agricultural wastewaters. The available information on the potential toxicity of streptomycin of fresh algae implicated in the treatment of biological wastewater is extremely limited.

Thus, this review will highlight the most important results with

Thus, this review will highlight the most important results with a focus on resuscitated, clinically relevant experimental models and, if available, human studies.

Recent findings

There is ample evidence that nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and H(2)S may exert cytoprotective effects in shock states due to their vasomotor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties as well as their potential to induce a hibernation-like metabolic

state called ‘suspended animation’ resulting from inhibition of cytochrome-c-oxidase. It must be emphasized, however, that the three molecules may also be cytotoxic, not only because of their inhibition learn more of cellular respiration but also because of their marked pro-inflammatory effects.


It is still a matter of debate whether manipulating nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, or H(2)S tissue concentrations, either by using the inhaled gas itself or by administering donor molecules or inhibitors of their endogenous production, is a useful therapeutic approach to improve microcirculatory blood flow, tissue oxygenation,

and cellular respiration. This is mainly due to their ‘friend and foe character’ documented in various experimental models, but also to the paucity of data from long-term, resuscitated large animal experiments that fulfil the criteria of clinically relevant models.”
“Starch within the endosperm of most species of the Triticeae has a unique bimodal granule morphology comprising large lenticular A-type granules and smaller near-spherical B-type granules. However, a few wild wheat species (Aegilops) are find more known to lack B-granules. Ae. peregrina and a synthetic tetraploid Aegilops with the same genome composition (SU) were found to differ in B-granule number. The synthetic tetraploid had normal A- and B-type starch granules whilst Ae. peregrina had only A-granules because the B-granules failed to initiate. A population segregating for B-granule GSK1120212 datasheet number was generated by crossing these two accessions and was used to study the genetic basis of B-granule initiation. A combination of Bulked Segregant Analysis and QTL mapping identified a major

QTL located on the short arm of chromosome 4S that accounted for 44.4% of the phenotypic variation. The lack of B-granules in polyploid Aegilops with diverse genomes suggests that the B-granule locus has been lost several times independently during the evolution of the Triticeae. It is proposed that the B-granule locus is susceptible to silencing during polyploidization and a model is presented to explain the observed data based on the assumption that the initiation of B-granules is controlled by a single major locus per haploid genome.”
“Study Design. A primary leiomyosarcoma located on the left side of the C2 is reported. Left-sided partial spondylectomy and anterior reconstruction with posterior stabilization was performed by a two-staged operation.