[19�C30] Dasatinib cost HPTLC remains one of the most flexible, reliable, and cost-efficient separation technique ideally suited for the analysis of botanicals and herbal drugs. Used with standardized procedures, it guarantees reproducible results, a vital element in the routine identification of complex fingerprints of plant extracts and pharmaceutical products.[19] It has established itself as the method of choice for handling complex analytical tasks involving herbal drugs and botanicals. The unique combination of state-of-art instrumentation, standardized procedures, and solid theoretical foundations enables it to deliver reliable, cGMP-compliant results time after time. High-throughput analysis using HPLTC is being aimed at the rapid analysis of large numbers of compounds.

This field has been expedited by the requirement to provide analytical support for multiple drug targets emerging from the field of molecular biology, human genetics, and functional genomics. Further, drivers for development have been in the support for the analysis of large compound libraries arising from parallel and combinatorial chemistry, and economic pressure to reduce time-to-market for new drug candidates.[20] APPLICATIONS OF HPLTC HPTLC is one of the most widely applied methods for the analysis in pharmaceutical industries, clinical chemistry, forensic chemistry, biochemistry, cosmetology, food and drug analysis, environmental analysis, and other areas. It is due to its numerous advantages, for example, it is the only chromatographic method offering the option of presenting the results as an image.

Other advantages include simplicity, low costs, parallel analysis of samples, high sample capacity, rapidly obtained results, and possibility of multiple detection. Le Roux et al[31] evaluated a HPTLC technique for the determination of salbutamol serum levels in clinical trials and established as a suitable method for analyzing samples from the serum. Many lipids have also been analyzed and studied using HPTLC; 20 different lipid subclasses were separated using HPTLC with the reproducible and promising results. Many reports on studies related to clinical medicine have already been published in many journals. HPTLC is now strongly recommended in the analysis of drugs in serum and other tissues.[32] HPTLC IN PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS HPTLC is also used in analyzing the purity and efficacy of many pharmaceutical preparations and dosage forms.

Puranik et al developed and validated a simple, rapid, and accurate chromatographic methods (HPLC and HPTLC) for simultaneous determination Drug_discovery of ofloxacin and ornidazole in solid dosage form. The amount of ofloxacin and ornidazole estimated as percentage of label claimed was found to be 100.23 and 99.61% with mean percent recoveries 100.47 and 99.32%, respectively.

The four JC50T spectra were imported into the MALDI Bio Typer sof

The four JC50T spectra were imported into the MALDI Bio Typer software (version 2.0, Bruker) and analyzed by standard pattern matching (with default parameter settings) against the main spectra of 2,843 bacteria, http://www.selleckchem.com/products/jq1.html including spectra from three validly published Alistipes species used as reference data, in the Bio Typer database. The method of identification included the m/z from 3,000 to 15,000 Da. For every spectrum, 100 peaks at most were taken into account and compared with the spectra in database. A score enabled the presumptive identification, or discrimination, from the tested species: a score �� 2 with a validated species enabled the identification at the species level; a score �� 1.7 but < 2 enabled the identification at the genus level; and a score < 1.7 did not enable any identification.

Spectra were compared with the Bruker database that contained spectra from the three validated Alistipes species. No significant score was obtained, thus suggesting that our isolate was not a member of a known species. We incremented our database with the spectrum from strain JC50T (Figure 4). Figure 4 Reference mass spectrum from A. senegalensis strain JC50T. Spectra from 12 individual colonies were compared and a reference spectrum was generated. Genome sequencing and annotation Genome project history The organism was selected for sequencing on the basis of its phylogenetic position and 16S rRNA similarity to other members of the Alistipes genus, and is part of a ��culturomics�� study of the human digestive flora aiming at isolating all bacterial species within human feces.

It was the second genome of an Alistipes species and the first genome of Alistipes senegalensis sp. nov. A summary of the project information is shown in Table 2. The Genbank accession number is “type”:”entrez-nucleotide”,”attrs”:”text”:”CAHI00000000″,”term_id”:”390170061″,”term_text”:”CAHI00000000″CAHI00000000 and consists of forty contigs. Table 2 shows the project information and its association with MIGS version 2.0 compliance [5]. Table 2 Project information Growth conditions and DNA isolation A. senegalensis sp. nov. strain JC50T, CSUR P156, was grown on blood agar medium at 37��C. Twelve petri dishes were spread and resuspended in 6��100��l of G2 buffer (EZ1 DNA Tissue kit, Qiagen). A first mechanical lysis was performed by glass powder on the Fastprep-24 device (Sample Preparation system) from MP Biomedicals, USA during 2��20 seconds.

DNA was then incubated for a lysozyme treatment (30 minutes at 37��C) and extracted through the BioRobot EZ 1 Advanced XL (Qiagen). The DNA was then concentrated and purified on a Qiamp kit (Qiagen). The yield and the concentration was Cilengitide measured by the Quant-it Picogreen kit (Invitrogen) on the Genios_Tecan fluorometer at 62.7 ng/��l.

No growth was observed on acetate, formate, methanol, monomethyla

No growth was observed on acetate, formate, methanol, monomethylamine selleck chem inhibitor and yeast extract with N2-CO2 or H2 atmosphere in the presence or absence of sulfur [1]. Nitrate, tryptone and yeast extract were used as nitrogen sources [1]. Growth of strain BSAT was inhibited by chloramphenicol, penicillin G and rifampicin at 100 ��g/ml but not by streptomycin when added before incubation at the optimum temperature [1]. Figure 2 Scanning electron micrograph of D. thermolithotrophum BSAT Chemotaxonomy The total lipid content of strain BSAT is about 6% of the total dry weight and is characterized by the presence of aminophospholipids and a phospholipid at about 66%, Rf 0.7 and 30%, R f 0.5, respectively, as well as minor compounds [1].

Gas chromatographic analysis of fatty acid components of both compounds revealed the presence of saturated and monounsaturated acyl chains [1]. The phosphoinositol contains C16:0 (15%), C18:1 (41%) identified as methyl-oleate, and C18:0 (44%) identified as stearate. The phosphoamino-positive compounds contained C16:0 (14%), C18:1 (43%), C18:0 (31%) and C20:0 (12%), as well as minor compounds [1]. Genome sequencing and annotation Genome project history This organism was selected for sequencing on the basis of its phylogenetic position [31], and is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project [32]. The genome project is deposited in the Genomes On Line Database [13] and the complete genome sequence is deposited in GenBank. Sequencing, finishing and annotation were performed by the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI).

A summary of the project information is shown in Table 2. Table 2 Genome sequencing project information Growth conditions and DNA isolation D. thermolithotrophum strain BSAT, DSM 11699, was grown anaerobically in DSMZ medium 829 (Desulfurobacterium medium) [34] at 70��C. DNA was isolated from 0.5-1 g of cell paste using Qiagen Genomic 500 DNA Kit (Qiagen 10262) following the standard protocol as recommended by the manufacturer without modifications. DNA is available through the DNA Bank Network [35]. Genome sequencing and assembly The genome was sequenced using a combination of Illumina and 454 sequencing platforms. All general aspects of library construction and sequencing can be found at the JGI website [36]. Pyrosequencing reads were assembled using the Newbler assembler (Roche).

The initial Newbler assembly consisting of 96 contigs in one scaffold was converted into a phrap [37] assembly by making fake reads from the consensus, to collect the read pairs in the 454 paired end library. Illumina GAii sequencing data (45.0 Mb) was assembled with Velvet [38] and the consensus sequences were shredded into 1.5 kb overlapped fake reads and assembled together with the 454 Carfilzomib data. The 454 draft assembly was based on 192.1 Mb 454 draft data and all of the 454 paired end data. Newbler parameters are -consed -a 50 -l 350 -g -m -ml 20.

g myeloid cells [29] Indeed, some reports indicate that PRL fro

g. myeloid cells [29]. Indeed, some reports indicate that PRL from the pituitary gland induces read more production of nitric oxide and TNF-�� in murine peritoneal M?, a process involving protein tyrosine kinases, MAP kinases and Ca++ channeling [30]. On the other hand, the inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by pituitary PRL has previously correlated with JAK-STAT-5b activation and the suppression of IRF-1 in lung fibroblasts [15]. Using an acute inflammation model induced with LPS in mice and characterized by proinflammatory cytokine synthesis, it has been shown that PRLr mRNA is differentially expressed [13]. Nevertheless, the same cytokines induce the expression of PRLr isoforms that may allow PRL to inhibit the nitrosative stress in pulmonary fibroblasts [15].

Therefore, we hypothesized that the expression of an autocrine loop of PRL might play an important role during the inflammatory response in monocytes. To study the inflammatory response with LPS, the human monocytic leukemia-derived THP-1 cell differentiated with phorbolmyristate has been useful [22,31]. LPS is instantaneously recognized by TLR4 expressed by monocytes [22,31,32]. TLR4 is associated with MD-2 on the cell surface and this is required for induction of inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, LPS-binding protein (LBP) and CD14 are involved in the responses to LPS. CD14 binds LBP and delivers LPS-LBP to the TLR4-MD-2 complex. TLR4 is known to activate two signaling pathways: the myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88-dependent pathways and the TIR-containing adapter inducing IFN��-dependent pathway.

Signaling pathways via TLR4 mediated by these adapter molecules conclude in the activation of NF-kB, and/or mitogen-activated protein kinases, and/or the transcription factor IFN regulatory factor 3. Activation of these molecules regulates the expression of diverse inflammatory genes as type I IFN [33]. LPS is a specific ligand for TLR4, but cytokines and hormones may cooperate to enhance eradication of pathogens from the circulation AV-951 system and tissue sites [34]. In this work, in order to avoid masked effects of other molecules released by differentiated M? into the culture medium, we used undifferentiated monocytes including the cell culture line THP-1 and fresh monocytes isolated from subjects likely with different genotypes. We used primers to amplify the conserved region of PRLr mRNA from all isoforms that retain 175 bp of the exons 7, 8 and 9 (GenBank ID: “type”:”entrez-nucleotide”,”attrs”:”text”:”NM_001204315.1″,”term_id”:”324073310″,”term_text”:”NM_001204315.1″NM_001204315.1), including: LF, intermediate isoform (IF), and short isoforms, ��SF1, SF1a, SF1b, ��4-SF1b, ��4/6-SF1a, SF1c; and to detect the PRL mRNA, exons 4-5 were amplified.

However, increased operating time means increased duration of gen

However, increased operating time means increased duration of general anesthesia and thus increased patient risk. Although no anesthesia-related complications were reported in the mentioned trials, a significant number of the studies used ASA class III or IV as a cut-off point for www.selleckchem.com/products/BI6727-Volasertib.html patients suitable for SILC/LESS cholecystectomy [13, 14, 19], thus the use of SILC/LESS cholecystectomy in patients in which there are foreseeable anesthesia-related complications remains limited. One of the ultimate goals of the development of SILS/LESS cholecystectomy is a reduction in postoperative pain perception and a decreased used of analgesic medications [9]. The evaluation of postoperative pain is consistently included as a primary or secondary outcome in recent studies [12�C20] but lacking in previous studies [6].

The outcome however remains obscure as there are reports in which there is no difference in pain perception between SILC/LESS cholecystectomy and LC groups [14, 16, 18], increased perception in the SILC/LESS cholecystectomy group [15, 19], and decreased pain perception in the SILC/LESS cholecystectomy groups [12, 17]. The lack of consistent evidence regarding pain perception requires further evaluation in randomized clinical trials. In comparing outcomes between procedures, one of the key points to evaluate is the presence or absence of intraoperative and postoperative complications. A procedure can be considered safe only if the rate of complications is similar to that of the current gold-standard.

When comparing the rate of complications between SILC and LESS cholecystectomy numerous studies have reported both, no significant difference with regard to complication rate [6, 15, 17, 22] or an increased complication rate when comparing SILS/LESS cholecystectomy to LC [14, 18]. With regard to the study by Phillips et al. [14] it is interesting to note that this is the same cohort of patients as an initial report by Marks et al. In the original report by Marks et al. [13] there was no significant difference in complications. However in the report by Phillips et al. [14], the number of patients increased and so did the complications associated with single-incision surgery [14]. This is the largest case series published so far and in theory the learning curve has leveled off, indicating that the complications are inherent to the procedure itself, questioning the feasibility of widespread application of the SILC/LESS cholecystectomy.

One of the complications that has been discussed the most is the increased risk of a postincisional hernia after SILS/LESS surgery due to an increase in size of the defect in the fascia. This complication has tried to be avoided by turning multiple fascial defects into a single incision, however, results have AV-951 been inconclusive. [6, 14, 25, 35].

Table 2 Status of fusion in patients Back pain as assessed using

Table 2 Status of fusion in patients. Back pain as assessed using visual analogue scale improved from a pretreatment score of 8.3 to 2 at final followup. Functional outcome assessed Sunitinib clinical trial as per the modified Kirkaldy-Willis criteria revealed 3 patients to have an excellent outcome, while good outcome was observed in 1 patient. The most common complication was conversion to minithoracotomy in two patients. It was due to extensive pleural adhesions leading to difficulty in graft placement in one case and bleeding during placement of portals in another case. None of our cases had pneumothorax, pneumonitis, chylothorax, or Horner’s syndrome. Postoperative histopathological examination showed caseation and/or granuloma formation suggestive of tuberculosis in all cases.

Figures Figures22 and and33 are the photographs of X-rays, CT and MRI of the representative cases at presentation, six months, and 12 months. Figure 2 Tubercular spondylitis thoracic spine (D10-D11). Patient had a good subjective outcome and all changes in laboratory and radiological (MRI, CT, and X-rays) parameters showed improvement by the end of 12 months. Fusion was achieved at 12 months. No complications … Figure 3 Tubercular spondylitisthoracic (D9-D10) with neurologic deficit. VATS along with minithoracotomy and placement of bone graft was done. Conversion to minithoracotomy was done because of dense pleural adhesions and difficulty in making portals was also … 4. Discussion Evidence of tuberculous spondylitis, probably due to infection with mycobacterium bovis, was identified in mummies from the tomb of nebeveenenf, indicating that this process existed in dynastic Egypt as early as 3700BC [19].

Skeletal tuberculosis still remains a major health concern as it accounts for at least 10% of cases of extrapulmonary infection, and spine is the most common site of bony involvement [10]. Absolute indications for surgery in patients with spinal tuberculosis under active treatment are approximately 6% in those without neurologic deficit and approximately 60% in those with neurologic deficit [20]. The standard surgical method of decompression of tubercular dorsal spine is either the anterolateral extrapleural or open transthoracic transpleural approach. Both these approaches are sufficient for adequate decompression and graft placement but are associated with significant morbidity and require a prolonged hospital stay [15].

Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is a good surgical alternative to conventional thoracotomy with minimal morbidity [21], though surgically demanding. VATS has been used extensively in spinal deformities such as scoliosis with results comparable to open procedures, but there has been limited use of VATS for decompression in Dacomitinib active tuberculosis of dorsal spine [16].

To assay

To assay Paclitaxel human endothelial cells the dose dependence of intracellular G418 in HEK293-H cells, the cells were exposed to various concentrations of G418 (0, 18.75, 37.5, 75, 150, 225, 300 ��g/ml) in DMEM/10% fetal bovine serum. The cell monolayers were incubated at each G418 concentration at 37��C (5% CO2) for 24 h. After 24 h, the cells were washed three times with ice-cold PBS and resuspended in 200 ��l borate buffer (20 mM sodium borate, pH 8). The cells were then immediately homogenized using a 25-gauge needle (BD); the homogenate was centrifuged at 600 g for 10 min and then at 15,000 g for 5 min at 4��C. Cell proteins were precipitated with methanol (1:4 ratio), and the samples were incubated on ice for 1�C2 h. The samples were then centrifuged at 15,000 g for 5 min at 4��C. The supernatant from each sample was lyophilized overnight.

Standards or lyophilized samples from HEK293-H cells containing G418, in 50 ��l of borate buffer, were each mixed with 150 ��l of 0.15 M 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNFB) and incubated for 45 min at 100��C . At the end of the incubation, the liquid from the samples was completely evaporated. The samples were cooled to room temperature, dissolved in 150 ��l of acetonitrile-water (2:1, vol/vol), and injected into the Varian ProStar 210 HPLC system equipped with a ProStar 325 Dual Wavelength UV-Vis detector with the wavelengths set at 340 and 280 nm (Varian, Palo Alto, CA). Mobile phases consisted of solvent A, 0.1% TFA in water, and solvent B, 0.1% TFA in acetonitrile. Separation of the G418-DNFB conjugate was performed with a reverse-phase C18 column (Vydac 218TP54, 4.

6 �� 250 mm, Hesperia, CA), applying the linear gradient of solvent B from 0 to 100% over 100 min (flow rate: 1 ml/min). Results were expressed as a ratio of G418 to the amount of protein in the sample. Cell protein was determined using Bradford reagent (Sigma) with absorbance measured at 595 nm. In the G418 removal time course protocol, the cells were exposed to G418 (75 ��g/ml) for 24 h, after which the compound was removed from the media and intracellular G418 was assayed at various subsequent time points. Immunocytochemistry. Approximately 24 h following transfection, HEK293-H cells growing on circular coverslips were rinsed twice with 1�� PBS and processed for examination by immunofluorescence microscopy. The cells were incubated for 2 min in 1 ml of methanol (~4��C) and then rinsed twice with 1�� PBS.

A previously well-characterized NBCe1-A-specific antibody (8) was applied at 1:100 dilution in PBS for 1 h at room temperature. After several washes in PBS, goat anti-rabbit IgG conjugated with Cy3 (1:500 dilution; Jackson ImmunoResearch) was applied for 1 h at room temperature. The slides were rinsed in PBS, treated with 4% paraformaldehyde, and mounted in Crystal/Mount (Biomeda, Entinostat Foster City, CA).

Microtubules The microtubule cytoskeleton was visualized using an

Microtubules The microtubule cytoskeleton was visualized using antibody to ��-tubulin. Cells fixed in www.selleckchem.com/products/lapatinib.html PFA (3%, 30 min) and permeabilized in baths with increasing concentrations of alcohol were incubated with mouse monoclonal anti-��-tubulin antibody (1:50). The antigen-antibody complexes were revealed after incubation with anti-mouse IgG coupled with TRITC (1:100). Some reactions were also performed on cells previously treated with nocodazole to check for microtubule depolymerization. MTOCs were detected using mouse monoclonal antibody to ��-tubulin (1:50) according to the method described above for the detection of ��-tubulin. Controls The specificity of the immunocytochemical reactions was determined by incubating cells solely with the anti-rabbit IgG coupled with FITC or anti-mouse IgG coupled with TRITC.

Immunofluorescence samples were mounted in Fluorostab medium (ICN Biomedicals; Aurora, OH) and examined by confocal microscopy with an argon laser (488 nm) for FITC excitation and a helium laser (543 nm) for TRITC excitation. Serial optical sections were collected in the Z axis at 1-��m intervals. Results Growth of CFPAC-1 and CFPAC-PLJ-CFTR6 Cells CFPAC-1 and CFPAC-PLJ-CFTR6 cells displayed differences in their morphology and their growth in culture. In both lines, confluence was reached by day 5 and dome-like structures were observed. CFPAC-1 cells exhibited heterogeneous morphology. Two types of cells were observed: (a) epithelial cells (the majority) with an average diameter of 29 ��m; and (b) fibroblast-like cells grouped in rows.

On average, the latter measured 57 ��m in length and 12 ��m in width. In the CFPAC-PLJ-CFTR6 line, whole cells exhibited epithelial morphology, with a diameter ranging from 10 ��m to 21 ��m. For both cell lines, occludin immunoreactivity was seen as a border around the cells in the apical regions (Figures 1a and and1b),1b), confirming the polarized state. CFPAC-1 and CFPAC-PLJ-CFTR6 cells, plated at a concentration of 1.7 �� 105 cells/ml, both presented a doubling time of 18 hr. However, cell density on day 7 differs between the two cell lines: 3.4 �� 106 cells/ml for CFPAC-1 and 6 �� 106 cells/ml for CFPAC-PLJ-CFTR6 cells. By day 4, the mitotic index was not significantly different between CFPAC-1 (4.8%) and CFPAC-PLJ-CFTR6 (4.6%) cells. The rate of multipolar mitosis, producing up to 4 mitotic spindles, was similar in both CFPAC-1 (0.

24%) and CFPAC-PLJ-CFTR6 (0.29%) cells. Figure 1. Demonstration of the polarized state of CFPAC-1 (a) and CFPAC-PLJ-CFTR6 (b) cells by revealing the tight junction using anti-occludin antibodies. Focal planes passing through the apical regions of GSK-3 cells show the presence of an occludin-immunoreactive … The morphology and growth of the CFPAC-PLJ6 cells were comparable to those observed on the CFPAC-1 cells.

The Wyeth vaccinia backbone of JX-594 is inherently

The Wyeth vaccinia backbone of JX-594 is inherently selleck bio tumor-selective due to endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR)-ras pathway dependency (activated in cancer cells)5,6 and resistance to interferon induction and effects in tumors.7 The inherent therapeutic index is amplified by the deletion of the vaccinia thymidine kinase (TK) gene. As a result, JX-594 replication is also dependent on high levels of cellular TK which is driven by cell cycle abnormalities in cancer.8 Results from a phase 1 clinical trial of intratumoral JX-594 in patients with refractory liver tumors demonstrated safety, antitumor efficacy and mechanistic proof-of-concept for JX-594 replication, systemic dissemination to distant tumors and expression of biologically active GM-CSF.

9 In this trial, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were found to be highly sensitive to JX-594, resulting in acute vascular shutdown and necrotic (Choi) tumor responses.10 Noninjected tumors also demonstrated infection and necrosis following trafficking of JX-594 through the blood to distant tumor sites. No liver toxicity was reported. Phase 2 development of JX-594 in patients with advanced HCC was therefore indicated. The only approved systemic therapy for HCC to date is sorafenib (Nexavar, and Bayer, Leverkusen, Germany). Sorafenib is an oral small molecule multi-kinase inhibitor that has both antiproliferative (via B-raf kinase inhibition) and antiangiogenic effects [via inhibition of vascular EGFR (VEGFR)] in mice and humans.11 Sorafenib was evaluated in two phase 3 randomized clinical trials of patients with advanced HCC.

12,13 In both of these trials, objective tumor responses were rare (1�C2% objective partial Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) responses). The median survival duration was increased by ~3 months. Sorafenib toxicities include rash (hand-foot syndrome), diarrhea, and fatigue; dose reductions and/or discontinuation are common. Therefore, novel therapies are needed for patients with HCC, both as single agents and in combination with sorafenib therapy. We hypothesized that the combination of the oncolytic poxvirus JX-594 and the small molecule sorafenib could result in superior efficacy to that achievable with sorafenib alone in HCC. These agents have differing and complementary mechanisms-of-action. JX-594 induces acute tumor cell cytolysis, tumor vascular disruption, and necrosis followed by long-term antitumor immunity.

In contrast, sorafenib is antiangiogenic and inhibits tumor progression. In addition, the toxicity profiles are not over-lapping, and therefore the combination was predicted to have an acceptable toxicity profile. Cilengitide A potential problem with this combination, if given simultaneously, would be that sorafenib could block JX-594 replication through its raf inhibition.

Regarding the direct health effects, about 43 7% of women reporte

Regarding the direct health effects, about 43.7% of women reported that the waterpipe Wortmannin 19545-26-7 smokers have high probability to suffer from immediate symptoms of smoking including headache, nausea, vomiting, stomach ache, and coughing, 21.5% reported that cigarette smokers have high probability to suffer from such symptoms. To assess women��s perception regarding harms of cigarette smoking to the health of the fetus, the following question was asked: In your opinion, which of the following statements apply to the effect of exposure to cigarette smoking on fetal health? Women were given the following choices: (a) cigarette smoking does not affect fetal health, (b) cigarette smoking has some negative effects on fetal health, and (c) cigarette smoking has many negative effects on fetal health.

To assess women��s perception about the effects of waterpipe smoking on fetal health, the same question was asked, but replacing ��cigarette�� with ��waterpipe.�� The results show that comparable percentages of women believed that either waterpipe (80.8%) or cigarette (76.4%) smoking are associated with negative health effects on the fetus. Discussion In this study, we examined the prevalence and the pattern of cigarettes and waterpipe smoking among pregnant women in Jordan. The data indicate that approximately 15% of the pregnant women in Jordan smoke tobacco during pregnancy. Higher prevalence rates were reported in some developed and developing countries including France (36%; Lelong, Blondel, & Kaminski, 2011), United Kingdom (27%; Fleming & Blair, 2007), Lebanon (25.

7%; Bachir & Chaaya, 2008), and Serbia (37.2%; Krstev, Marinkovic, Simic, Kocev, & Bondy, 2011). In other countries, different estimates were reported: United States (10.2%), Japan (8.9%) (Suzuki et al., 2010), Australia (17.4%; Thrift, Nancarrow, & Bauman, 2011), Tunisia (4%�C18.8%; Fakhfakh et al., 2011), Romania (15%; Meghea, Rus, Rus, Summers Holtrop, & Roman, 2010), and Poland (8%; Perz, Gaca, Mniszak, & Wesol, 2006). In this study, about 83% of the sample reported that they were exposed to tobacco smoke from both cigarette and waterpipe (passive smoking). Reports from several countries indicated that rates of secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy ranged between 17% and 94% (Bloch et al., 2008; Franchini et al., 2008; Kelly et al., 2011; Torres et al., 2011; Yang, Tong, Mao, & Hu, 2010).

In previous studies from Jordan, exposure to secondhand cigarette smoke among Jordanian women was about 70% in a sample of patients admitted to a local hospital, using a survey that was developed by the researchers (Zmeili, 1992) while another study indicated that 60% of mothers were exposed to secondhand smoke from other GSK-3 family members at home using both survey instrument and biomarkers of exposure to cigarettes (nicotine and cotinine plasma levels [n = 220, Badran, Salhab, & Al-Jaghbir, 2009]).