The aponeurosis was much more selleck rigid and less extendible than the vagina and skin. Vaginal tissue was less rigid but more extendible than skin. There was no difference between the vagina and skin at low strains (p = 0.341), but a highly significant difference at large strains (p = 0.005).\n\nSkin and aponeurosis are not suited to predict vaginal tissue biomechanics. We should be cautious when transferring experiences from abdominal wall surgery to vaginal reconstructive surgery.”
“Cumulating evidence points to a key role for CD8+ T
cells in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. CD8 expression level was believed to be present constantly on the surface of human peripheral blood T cells. However, it was shown that peripheral blood lymphocytes may be divided by the level of CD8 expression, into CD8+(high) and CD8+(low) T cells. Now it is well established that the CD8(low) population of CD8+ T cells demonstrates an activated effector phenotype while the CD8+(high) T cells have been reported to have regulatory function.\n\nIn this report we used a flow cytometric assay to compare the frequency of these two subsets in multiple sclerosis patients (n=31) with healthy age-and gender-matched controls (n=18).\n\nWe found that CD8+ T cells and CD8+(low) T cells significantly increased in secondary progressive
(SP) and primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) patients in comparison to controls (p<0.0002 and p<0.004 respectively) and also RRMS (p<0.005 and p<0.017 respectively).\n\nThese results demonstrated the role of CD8(low) Selleck SRT2104 T cells in progressive form of multiple sclerosis.”
“The PI3K inhibitor present study is the
first to investigate resistance levels of Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boiduval) in mulberry in southwest China. The toxicity and resistance of seven common acaricides, including dichlorvos, phoxim, methomyl, pyridaben, propargite, abamectin and chlorfenapyr, were assayed for seven mulberry field strains of mites along with a laboratory susceptible strain (SS). The results indicated that most field strains exhibited low to moderate levels of resistance. Mengzi and Xiangyun had moderate resistance to phoxim (RR=31.45 and 26.22, respectively). The Qiaojia, Luliang, Mengzi and Heqing strains showed moderate resistance to chlorfenapyr (RR=14.98-22.52). Correlation analysis of resistance ratio in seven acaricides indicated that methomyl and abamectin were negatively correlated. The results provide information for acaricide rotations and resistance management of spider mite in mulberry plantations.”
“Background: Proteases are important enzymes involved in numerous essential physiological processes and hold a strong potential for industrial applications. The proteolytic activity of insects’ gut is endowed by many isoforms with diverse properties and specificities. Thus, insect proteases can act as a tool in industrial processes.
We revisited 152 Peruvian children who participated in a birth cohort study between 1995 and 1998, and obtained anthropometric and bioimpedance measurements 1114 years later. LCL161 nmr We used multivariable regression models to study the effects of childhood anthropometric indices on height
and body composition in early adolescence. Each standard deviation decrease in length-for-age at birth was associated with a decrease in adolescent height-for-age of 0.7 SD in both boys and girls (all P < 0.001) and 9.7 greater odds of stunting (95% CI 3.328.6). Each SD decrease in length-for-age in the first 30 months of life was associated with a decrease in adolescent height-for-age of 0.4 in boys and 0.6 standard deviation in girls (all P < 0.001) and with 5.8 greater odds of stunting (95% CI 2.613.5). The effect of weight gain during early childhood on weight in early
adolescence was more complex to understand. Weight-for-length at birth and rate of change in weight-for-length in early childhood were positively associated with age- and sex-adjusted body mass index and a greater risk of find more being overweight in early adolescence. Linear growth retardation in early childhood is a strong determinant of adolescent stature, indicating that, in developing countries, growth failure in height during early childhood persists through early adolescence. Interventions addressing linear growth retardation in childhood are likely to improve adolescent stature and related-health outcomes in adulthood. Am J Phys Anthropol 148:451461, 2012. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“For women with hormone receptor-positive disease, the third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs), anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane, are more effective than tamoxifen in improving disease-free survival (DFS) when used initially or as adjuvant therapy following two to three years of tamoxifen or after tamoxifen has been completed. Demonstrating improvement in overall survival (OS), or breast cancer-associated mortality, however, requires long follow-up in
large numbers of patients. Subsequent crossover to another treatment following disease recurrence further confounds the assessment of OS benefit. DFS is the YAP-TEAD Inhibitor 1 molecular weight primary end point of most adjuvant trials, but the definition varies among trials, making cross-trial comparisons difficult. Importantly, DFS benefit does not always correlate with OS benefit. Distant metastasis is a well-recognized predictor of breast cancer-associated mortality, and AIs have shown greater efficacy over tamoxifen in reducing distant metastatic events and improving distant DFS (DDFS). A small proportion of initially treated early breast cancer patients may already have micrometastatic tumor deposits that can result in the rapid development of distant metastases.
Initially, microbial counts of fresh minced meat showed microbial loads AZD1152 Cell Cycle inhibitor between 3.5 and 5.0 log cfu/g. The observed microbial diversity was relatively high, and the most abundant bacteria differed among the samples. During storage an increase of microbial counts coincided with a dramatic decrease in bacterial diversity. At the end of the storage period, most samples showed microbial counts above the spoilage level of 7 log cfu/g. A relatively similar bacterial community was obtained regardless of the manufacturing batch and the preservative used, with Lactobacillus algidus and Leuconostoc sp. as the most dominant microorganisms. This suggests that both bacteria played an important role in the
spoilage of minced meat packaged under modified atmosphere. (c) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“High-percent mammographic density adjusted for age and body mass index is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer. We conducted a meta analysis of five genome-wide association studies of percent mammographic density and report an association with rs10995190 in ZNF365 (combined P = 9.6 x 10(-10)). Common variants in ZNF365 have also recently been associated with susceptibility to breast cancer.”
“In recent years, the increasing awareness that
somatic mutations and AP24534 other genetic aberrations drive human malignancies has led us within reach of personalized cancer medicine (PCM). The implementation of PCM is based on the following premises: genetic aberrations exist in human malignancies; a subset of these aberrations drive oncogenesis and tumor biology; these aberrations
are actionable (defined as having the potential to affect management recommendations based on diagnostic, prognostic, and/or predictive implications); and there are highly specific anticancer agents available that effectively modulate these targets. This article highlights the technology underlying cancer genomics and examines the early results of genome sequencing and the challenges met in the discovery RG-7112 in vivo of new genetic aberrations. Finally, drawing from experiences gained in a feasibility study of somatic mutation genotyping and targeted exome sequencing led by Princess Margaret Hospital-University Health Network and the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, the processes, challenges, and issues involved in the translation of cancer genomics to the clinic are discussed. J Clin Oncol 30:647-660. (c) 2012 by American Society of Clinical Oncology”
“Background. To evaluate the clinical performance of photodynamic diagnostic (PDD) after oral administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) for assessment of tumor type and surgical margins in laparoscopic nephron-sparing surgery.\n\nMaterials and Methods. This is a prospective, non-randomized single-center study. A total of 77 patients with a renal mass < 4 cm diameter underwent laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN). For photosentization, 1.5 g 5-ALA was administered orally 4 h prior to surgery.
Methods: We used 1994-2005 Epidemiologic Study of CF data to compare abnormal liver findings between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white patients with CF. Results: Of 30,727 patients with CF, 5015 had liver involvement. Of 1957 Hispanic patients, 20.8% had liver involvement compared with 16.0% of 28,770 non-Hispanic white patients (odds ratio [OR] 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23-1.54). This higher prevalence of liver involvement persisted after adjusting for demographics and meconium ileus and was especially high in the first year of life (adjusted OR 3.14,95% CI 2.27-4.35). Ten percent of infants with only elevated liver enzymes progressed to more severe
liver disease. Conclusions: The Hispanic population with CF has more liver involvement (both elevated liver enzymes and clinical liver disease) than the non-Hispanic white population Natural Product Library with CF, especially during the first year of life.”
“Most humans become lifelong
carriers of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) by adulthood. Primary EBV infection in adolescents causes infectious mononucleosis. EBV infection is associated with various diseases, neoplasms and hematological disorders. Recently, we reported that EBV can infect rabbits by intravenous, intranasal see more and/or peroral inoculation, which caused primary EBV infection in rabbits with heterogeneous host reactions. Some rabbits showed chronic and lifelong EBV infection with hemophagocytosis. In this study, to reveal detailed mechanisms in rabbit EBV infection, an in vitro investigation was performed.
We elucidated that: (1) EBV can infect rabbit peripheral blood mononuclear cells and splenic lymphocytes in vitro, because EBV gene expressions were confirmed. (2) It is highly likely that the B cell is the main target cell of rabbit EBV DMXAA cost infection and is immortalized similar to humans. (3) CD8+ T cells increased in the rabbit in vivo model after EBV inoculation, whereas an increase of B cells occurred after their transient decrease. These data suggest that EBV-infected B cells were proliferated, while CD8+ T cells increased to recognize and kill them. This system may explain the paths of rabbit EBV infection and host reaction, simulating human EBV infection. In vitro studies will be helpful to reveal the pathogenesis of rabbit EBV infection and EBV-associated diseases. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“The pathogenicity of two granuloviruses (GVs), Xestia c-nigrum GV (XecnGV) and Pseudaletia unipuncta GV (PsunGV), was examined in Mythimna separata. Partial sequencing of the genome of PsunGV indicated that it is related closely to XecnGV, but considered to be a different species. PsunGV and XecnGV showed similar pathogenicity in terms of dose-mortality response and pattern of host mass changes following infection. Both GVs killed infected larvae in 2-3 weeks.
001). However, TH increased phase singularity number (wavebreaks) during VF (P<0.05) and Si pacing (P<0.05). TH resulted in earlier onset of APD alternans (P<0.001), which was predominantly SDA (P<0.05), and increased pacing-induced VF episodes (P<0.05). TH also decreased CV, shortened wavelength, and enhanced APD dispersion and the spatial heterogeneity of CV restitution.\n\nConclusions: TH (30 degrees C) increased the vulnerability of pacing-induced VF by (1) facilitating wavebreaks during VF and Si pacing, and (2) enhancing proarrhythmic electrophysiological parameters, including promoting
earlier onset of APD alternans (predominantly SDA) during LY2835219 S1 pacing. (Circ J 2009; 73: 2214-2222)”
“Brain metastasis has become an increasing cause of
morbidity Milciclib nmr and mortality in cancer patients as the treatment of systemic disease has improved. Brain metastases frequently are highly vascularized, a process driven primarily by VEGF. VEGF mediates numerous changes within the vasculature including endothelial cell retraction and increased permeability, vasodilation, and new vessel formation. Here we describe a xenograft brain metastasis model that mimics the critical steps of metastasis including tumor cell dissemination and vascular adhesion, tumor growth and tumor associated angiogenesis. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was used to evaluate two aspects of the functional response of brain metastasis to the anti-VEGF receptor therapeutic, AZD2171 (Cediranib, RECENTIN (TM)). MR tracking of individual cells demonstrated that cediranib did not impede tumor
cell extravasation into the brain parenchyma despite evidence that anti-VEGF treatment decreases the permeability of the blood brain barrier. In a second assay, blood volume imaging using ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide revealed that treatment of well-developed brain metastasis with cediranib for 7 days led to a heterogeneous response with respect to individual tumors. Overall, there was a significant average decrease in the tumor vascular bed volume. The majority of large tumors demonstrated substantially reduced central blood volumes relative to normal brain while retaining a rim of elevated blood volume at 3-deazaneplanocin A concentration the tumor brain interface. Small tumors or occasional large tumors displayed a static response. Models and assays such as those described here will be important for designing mechanism-based approaches to the use of anti-angiogenesis therapies for the treatment of brain metastasis.”
“Objective: We describe the short-term results of the patients who underwent transapical treatment of a paravalvular leak (PVL) in our centre. Background: Increasing experience with transapical aortic valve implantation has inspired us to explore this approach for prosthetic paravalvular leak reduction in high risk patients.
However, the impact of this spatial chromatin organization on gene expression and its degree of evolutionary conservation is still poorly understood. The Six homeobox genes are essential developmental regulators organized in gene clusters conserved during evolution. Here, we reveal that the Six clusters share a deeply evolutionarily conserved 3D chromatin organization that predates the Cambrian explosion. This chromatin architecture generates two largely independent regulatory landscapes (RLs) contained in two adjacent topological associating domains (TADs). By disrupting the conserved TAD border in one https://www.selleckchem.com/products/Vorinostat-saha.html of the zebrafish Six clusters, we demonstrate that this border is critical for preventing competition between
promoters and enhancers located mTOR inhibitor in separated RLs, thereby generating different
expression patterns in genes located in close genomic proximity. Moreover, evolutionary comparison of Six-associated TAD borders reveals the presence of CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) sites with diverging orientations in all studied deuterostomes. Genome-wide examination of mammalian HiC data reveals that this conserved CTCF configuration is a general signature of TAD borders, underscoring that common organizational principles underlie TAD compartmentalization in deuterostome evolution.”
“OBJECTIVE: Several different methodologies for proximal occlusion and retrograde suction decompression of large paraclinoid aneurysms have been reported previously. In this
article, we describe the novel use of an endovascular embolectomy device (F.A.S.T. funnel catheter; Genesis Medical Interventional, Inc., Redwood City, CA) for temporary internal carotid artery occlusion and suction decompression of an intracranial aneurysm to facilitate surgical clip ligation. The combination of atraumatic occlusion technology and large lumen size makes this technique safer and easier.\n\nCLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 53-year-old woman with progressive headaches underwent computed tomographic angiography, which revealed an unruptured large left paraclinoid aneurysm. Cerebral angiography confirmed the diagnosis. The patient did not tolerate a balloon learn more test occlusion for therapeutic Hunterian internal carotid occlusion. The patient was subsequently taken to the operating room for a craniotomy and clip ligation of the aneurysm.\n\nINTERVENTION: A standard left pterional craniotomy was performed with opening of the sylvian fissure and exposure of the left paraclinoid aneurysm. lntraoprative angiography with introduction of a new endovascular embolectomy device was performed. The device was deployed to achieve temporary occlusion of the cervical internal carotid artery, and aspiration through the central lumen allowed for retrograde suction decompression of the aneurysm. Collapse of the aneurysm through this technique permitted visualization of the aneurysmal neck with successful clip ligation.
\n\nConclusions: Under favorable economic
conditions, the tendency to be organized, disciplined, and deliberate is protective against drug use. These tendencies, however, matter less when financial resources are scarce. In contrast, those prone to emotional distress and antagonism are at greater risk for current drug use, regardless of their economic situation. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.”
“OBJECTIVES: To determine the survival rate, predictive factors and causes of death in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected tuberculosis (TB) patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART).\n\nDESIGN: This retrospective cohort study included all HIV-infected VS-6063 chemical structure TB patients reported in Barcelona check details between 1996 and 2006. A survival analysis was conducted based on the Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox proportional hazards; hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Causes of death were classified using the International Classification
of Diseases (ICD) 9 and ICD-10, and defined as acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) related, non-AIDS-related or unknown.\n\nRESULTS: Of the 792 patients included, 341 (43.1%) died. Survival at 10 years was 47.4% (95%CI 45.2-49.6). Poorer survival was observed in patients aged >30 years (HR 1.6, 95%CI 1.1-2.1), inner-city residents (HR 1.3, 95%CI 1.1-1.7), injecting drug users (HR 1.4, 95%CI 1.1-1.8), those
with a non-cavitary radiological pattern (HR 1.5, 95%CI 1.0-2.2), those with <200 CD4/mu l (HR 1.8, 95%CI 1.2-2.7) and those diagnosed with AIDS prior to their TB episode (HR 1.85, 95%CI 1.4-2.2). No differences were found for TB treatment (6 vs. 9 months) or for anti-tuberculosis drug resistance; 64.8% of the deaths were non-AIDS-related.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Poor survival was observed despite the availability of HAART, and non-AIDS-related mortality was high. Earlier HAART could help address AIDS and non-AIDS-related mortality.”
“Anthropometric measurements are essential in evaluation of physical Bindarit mw status and obesity. Use of some anthropometric indicators is limited and depends on the aim, because of different sensitivity. The aim of this paper was to determine mean BMI value and obesity prevalence according to different anthropometric parameters in doctors of family medicine in Banjaluka region. Obesity was investigated within the project of investigating predictors of professional satisfaction of doctors in primary health care. This investigation as a cross-sectional study was conducted in all health centers of Banjaluka Region, including interviewing and assessing health conditions of 290 doctors and anthropometrical measurements of 266 (95%) doctors in service of family medicine. Obesity evaluation was based on the mean Body Mass Index value which was 28.1 to 25.5 kg/m(2) in man and to 24.4 kg/m(2) in women. The highest BMI (28.
However, the nature of this association is unclear. We determined if 10 days of voluntary alcohol self-administration followed by withdrawal could directly alter DAT function, or if genetically mediated changes in DAT function and/or availability could influence vulnerability to alcohol abuse. Heterozygous (DAT+/-) and homozygous mutant (DAT-/-) and wild-type (DAT+/+) mice were allowed to consume 5% alcohol in a schedule-induced polydipsia selleck (SIP) task. In vivo fixed potential amperometry in anesthetized mice
was used to (1) identify functional characteristics of mesoaccumbens dopamine neurons related to genotype, including dopamine autoreceptor (DAR) sensitivity, DAT efficiency, and DAT capacity, (2) determine if any of these characteristics correlated with alcohol CHIR98014 molecular weight drinking observed in DAT+/+ and DAT+/- animals, and (3) determine if SIP-alcohol self-administration altered DAR sensitivity, DAT efficiency, and DAT capacity by comparing these characteristics in wild-type (DAT+/+) mice that were SIP-alcohol nave, with those that had undergone SIP-alcohol testing. DAT-/- mice consumed significantly less alcohol during testing and this behavioral difference was related to significant differences in DAR sensitivity, DAT efficiency, and DAT capacity. These functional characteristics were correlated to varying degrees with
g/kg alcohol consumption in DAT+/+ and DAT+/- mice. DAR sensitivity was consistently reduced and DAT efficiency was enhanced in SIP-alcohol-experienced DAT+/+ mice when compared with naive animals. These results indicate that DAR sensitivity is reduced by SIP-alcohol
consumption and that DAT efficiency is modified by genotype and SIP-alcohol exposure. DAT capacity Taselisib cell line appeared to be strictly associated with SIP-alcohol consumption. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the size and shape characteristics of prostatic adenocarcinoma cell nuclei using a computer-assisted analysis system, and to compare the results with the Gleason score.\n\nMaterials and Methods: Morphometric nuclear parameters, such as roundness factor, form ellipse, area, length, and perimeter, were evaluated based on specimen slides of 130 prostatic adenocarcinoma cases (77% needle biopsies and 23% prostatectomy specimens) using a computerized image analysis system. Correlation analysis between Gleason score and morphometric results was performed.\n\nResults: The Gleason score was correlated with mean nuclear area (r = 0.516, P = 0.01), mean nuclear length (r = 0.298, P = 0.01), and mean nuclear perimeter (r = 0.303, P = 0.01) for all specimens. In the needle biopsy group the Gleason score was correlated with mean nuclear area (r = 0.522, P = 0.01), mean nuclear length (r = 0.398, P = 0.
One of these signals can remodel a light-signaling network that regulates the expression of nuclear genes
that encode particular antenna proteins of photosystem II. These findings led us to test whether plastid PDGFR inhibitor signals might impact other light-regulated processes.\n\nPhotomorphogenesis was monitored in genomes uncoupled 1 (gun1), cryptochrome 1 (cry1), and long hypocotyl 5 (hy5), which have defects in light and plastid signaling, by growing Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings under various light conditions and either treating or not treating them with antibiotics that induce chloroplast dysfunction and trigger plastid signaling.\n\nIt was found that plastid signals that depend on GUN1 can affect cotyledon opening and expansion, anthocyanin biosynthesis, and hypocotyl elongation. We also found that plastid signals that depend on CRY1 can regulate cotyledon expansion and development.\n\nOur findings suggest that plastid signals triggered by plastid dysfunction can broadly affect photomorphogenesis and that plastid and light signaling can promote or antagonize each other, depending on the responses studied. GW786034 supplier These data suggest that GUN1 and cry 1 help to integrate chloroplast
function with photomorphogenesis.”
“Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are potentially useful for the treatment of skin diseases, because they stimulate keratinocyte differentiation, exert anti-inflammatory effects and improve barrier function. We examined five PPAR- agonists,
including four thiazolidinediones (ciglitazone, troglitazone, rosiglitazone and pioglitazone) and an angiotensin-II receptor blocker (telmisartan), for their ability to upregulate filaggrin and selleck compound loricrin expression at both mRNA and protein levels in cultured normal human keratinocytes (NHKs). Troglitazone, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone and telmisartan significantly increased filaggrin expression at both mRNA and protein levels in calcium-induced differentiated NHKs. Rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, but not troglitazone nor telmisartan, also significantly increased loricrin expression at both mRNA and protein levels in differentiated NHKs. These effects were not found in undifferentiated NHKs nor differentiated NHKs treated with ciglitazone. This study revealed differential effects of various PPAR- agonists on epidermal differentiation, and the most potent of those are rosiglitazone and pioglitazone.”
“Entamoeba histolytica is the third-leading cause of parasitic mortality globally. E. histolytica infection generally does not cause symptoms, but the parasite has potent pathogenic potential. The origins, benefits, and triggers of amoebic virulence are complex. Amoebic pathogenesis entails depletion of the host mucosal barrier, adherence to the colonic lumen, cytotoxicity, and invasion of the colonic epithelium. Parasite damage results in colitis and, in some cases, disseminated disease.
While there is still much to be done, the journey has commenced and will continue into the future with education, research and service delivery into
these important conditions being further enhanced. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In December 2008, 4.1 million cubic meters of coal ash were released into the Emory and Clinch Rivers by the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant. Coal ash contains several contaminants, including the bioaccumulative metalloid selenium (Se). Because Se is predominantly accumulated in aquatic organisms through dietary rather than aqueous exposure, tissue-based toxicity thresholds for Se are currently being considered. The proposed threshold concentrations range between 4g/g and 9g/g Se (dry wt.) in whole body fish, with a proposed fillet threshold of 11.8g/g. In the present study, the authors examined the Selleckchem Repotrectinib spatial and temporal trends Fedratinib mouse in Se
bioaccumulation and examined the relationship between the Se content in fillets and in whole bodies of fish collected around the Kingston spill site to determine whether Se bioaccumulation was a significant concern at the ash spill site. Whereas Se concentrations in fish (whole bodies and fillets) were elevated at sampling locations affected by the Kingston ash spill relative to reference locations, concentrations do not appear to be above risk thresholds and have not been increasing over the 5-yr period since the spill. These findings are not only relevant to guiding the human health and ecological risk assessments at the Kingston ash spill site, but because of current national discussions on appropriate guidelines for Se in fish as well for the disposal of coal combustion wastes, the results are also relevant to the general understanding of Se bioaccumulation
in contaminated water bodies. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:2273-2279. (c) 2014 SETAC”
“Background: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] or metabolic syndrome (MS) is individually considered an atherosclerotic factor. Serum Lp(a) may reportedly show the additive effects on atherosclerosis under certain particular pathologies. We do not know the Etomoxir inhibitor association between serum Lp(a) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) with relation to MS in older people. Objective: The present study aims at investigating the relationship between Lp(a) and CIMT levels in relation to MS among older subjects. Methods: We studied 182 Japanese subjects of >= 60 years (mean 72.5 years), free of cardiovascular/cerebrovascular disease. MS was based on the NCEP-ATPIII criteria with a minor modification for Japanese. The CIMT was ultrasonographically measured. Results: The CIMT levels were significantly greater in the MS group (n = 60, 1.03 +/- 0.22 mm) than the non-MS group (n = 122, 0.96 +/- 0.22 mm).