Studies showed that some classes of dyes, mainly azo dyes and their by-products, exert adverse effects on humans and local biota, since the wastewater treatment systems and water treatment plants were found to be ineffective in removing the color and reducing toxicity click here of some dyes. In the present study, the toxicity of the azo dyes disperse orange 1 (DO1), disperse red 1 (DR1), and disperse red 13 (DR13) was evaluated in HepG2 cells grown in monolayers or in three dimensional (3D) culture. Hepatotoxicity of the dyes was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) and cell counting kit 8 (CCK-8) assays after 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation of cells
with 3 different concentrations of the azo dyes. The dye DO1 only reduced the mitochondrial activity in HepG2 cells grown in a monolayer after 72 h incubation, while the dye DR1 showed this deleterious effect in both
monolayer and 3D culture. In contrast, dye DR13 decreased the mitochondrial activity after 24, 48, and 72 h of exposure in both monolayer and 3D culture. With respect to dehydrogenase activity, only the dye DR13 diminished the activity of this enzyme after 72 h of exposure in both monolayer and 3D culture. Our results clearly demonstrated that exposure to the studied dyes induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells.”
“A strong relationship between the clinical characteristics of epilepsy and the nature of cognitive impairments associated with the BAY 1895344 datasheet condition has been found, but the nature of this relationship appears to be quite complex and not well understood. This review presents a summary of the research on the interaction between cognition and epilepsy, surveyed from a mechanistic perspective with the aim of clarifying factors that contribute to the co-existence of both disorders. The physiological basis underpinning cognitive processing is first reviewed. The physiology of epilepsy is reviewed, with emphasis placed on interictal discharges and seizures. The nature of the impact of epilepsy on cognition is
described, with transient and prolonged PI3K inhibitor effects distinguished. Finally, the complexity of the co-morbidity between cognitive dysfunction and epilepsy is discussed in relation to childhood and adult-onset epilepsy syndromes and severe epileptic encephalopathies. Structural and functional abnormalities exist in patients with epilepsy that may underpin both the cognitive dysfunction and epilepsy, highlighting the complexity of the association. Research, possibly of a longitudinal nature, is needed to elucidate this multifactorial relationship between cognitive dysfunction and epilepsy. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Immunological memory has traditionally been regarded as a unique feature of the adaptive immune response, mediated in an antigen-specific manner by T and B lymphocytes.