“One-dimensional magnetic nanowires have been introduced i

“One-dimensional magnetic nanowires have been introduced into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to form polymer based nanocomposites. In contrast to the conventional nanofillers such as carbon

nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, nanoparticles, and layer-structured materials, these well-defined anisotropic metallic nanowires are highly conductive and have much weaker van der Waals interactions. Moreover, composition modulation can be introduced along the wire axis to achieve multifunctionalities. Incorporation of magnetic segment(s) to the nanowire makes it possible to use external magnetic field to manipulate the distribution and alignment of nanowires when they are suspended in liquids. To characterize the mechanical responses of the nanowire-elastomer composite, an approach using microscale rulers has been

Proteasome inhibitor developed to improve the resolution of strain measurement. Mechanical strengthening effects in PDMS composites with randomly and aligned nickel nanowires have been investigated.”
“The anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 is highly expressed in various types of malignant tumors. Overexpression is reported to correlate with poor prognosis and disease progression. We report the expression levels of Mcl-1 in tumor samples of the parotid gland. A retrospective study containing 108 patients was performed. A tissue microarray of six malignancies learn more of the parotid gland and pleomorphic adenoma as control was constructed. Parotid gland tumor samples were immunohistochemically stained for Mcl-1 and expression intensities Ion Channel Ligand Library were assessed. Statistical analysis included correlation to patients’ clinical data and comparison of malignancies to the adenoma.

All malignancies had significantly higher expression of Mcl-1 than the pleomorphic adenomas. The intensity, however, had no significant correlation to overall survival.

Our immunohistochemical findings indicate that parotid gland malignancies produce high levels of Mcl-1 protein. Therefore, Mcl-1 might serve as a predictive co-marker in tumors of the parotid

“SETTING: South Africa currently maintains separate surveillance systems for tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). There are future plans for integration of these systems; however, the consistency of information across the existing systems has not previously been assessed.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the completeness and concordance of data in the TB and HIV surveillance systems for TB-HIV co-infected patients.

DESIGN: In a retrospective cohort evaluation of the records of TB-HIV co-infected patients in the Eden District of the Western Cape, data were abstracted from paper-based and electronic TB and HIV surveillance sources. Concordance was measured using Fleiss’ kappa coefficient.

(The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2012;

(The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2012; 24:215-222)”
“Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) has been shown to be a promising biomarker of cancer risk in patients with premalignant conditions. In this study we describe analytical validation in clinical

biopsy samples of a SNP-based pyrosequencing panel targeting regions of LOH on chromosomes 17p and 9p including TP53 and CDKN2A tumor suppressor genes. Assays were tested for analytic specificity, sensitivity, efficiency, and reproducibility. Accuracy was evaluated by comparing SNP-based LOH results to those obtained buy Dihydrotestosterone by previously well-studied short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRs) in DNA derived from different tissue sources including fresh-frozen endoscopic biopsies, samples from surgical resections, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections.

A 17p/9p LOH panel comprised of 43 SNPs was designed to amplify with universal assay conditions in a two-step PCR and sequence-by-synthesis reaction that can be completed in two hours and 10 minutes. The methods presented can be a model for developing learn more a SNP-based LOH approach targeted to any chromosomal region of interest for other premalignant conditions and this panel could be incorporated as part of a biomarker for cancer risk prediction, early detection, or as entry criteria AG-014699 in vitro for randomized trials.”
“Epilepsy self-management interventions have been investigated with respect to health care needs, medical adherence, depression, anxiety, employment, and sleep problems. Studies have been limited in terms of representative samples and inconsistent or restricted findings. The direct needs assessment of patients with epilepsy as a basis for program design has not been well used as an approach to improving program participation

and outcomes. This study investigated the perceived medical and psychosocial problems of adults with epilepsy, as well as their preferences for self-management program design and delivery format. Results indicated a more psychosocially challenged subgroup of individuals with significant depressive and cognitive complaints. A self-management program that involves face-to-face individual or group meetings led by an epilepsy professional and trained peer leader for 60 minutes weekly was preferred. Six to eight sessions focused on diverse education sessions (e.g., managing disability and medical care, socializing on a budget, and leading a healthy lifestyle) and emotional coping strategies delivered on weeknights or Saturday afternoons were most highly endorsed. Emotional self-management and cognitive compensatory strategies require special emphasis given the challenges of a large subgroup. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

1 kA/m, resulting from strong exchange coupling between the hard

1 kA/m, resulting from strong exchange coupling between the hard and the soft phases. (c) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3567043]“
“An improved understanding of perinatal stroke epidemiology, classification, neuroimaging,

and outcomes has emerged in recent years. Despite this, little Quisinostat nmr is known regarding the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for most cases. A multitude of possible associations and putative risk factors have been reported, but most lack definitive empirical evidence supporting primary causation. These include obstetrical and maternal factors, perinatal conditions, infectious diseases, prothrombotic abnormalities, cardiac disorders, medications, and many others. The bulk of evidence is weak, dominated by case reports and retrospective case series. Findings from the small number of case-control and cohort studies that exist are limited by heterogeneous populations and methodologies. CUDC-907 inhibitor The single largest barrier to ultimately understanding and potentially improving outcomes from this common and disabling condition is the lack of comprehensive, fully powered risk factor studies required to definitively describe perinatal stroke pathogenesis. This review summarizes current evidence and suggests future directions for research.”
“Objective. This hospital-based

study was designed to provide demographic data on odontogenic tumors from the southern Indian population in the state of Tamil Nadu for comparison with pertinent series from other geographic regions.

Study design. A total of 489 cases of odontogenic tumors registered over a period of 38 years (February

1970-March 2008) in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology of Tamil Nadu Government Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, India, were retrieved from the files of histopathology registers and were retrospectively analyzed.

Results. Odontogenic tumors in the present click here study constituted 4.13% of all the 11,843 registered biopsies. The mandible was the most commonly affected anatomic location, with 362 cases (74.02%). Ameloblastoma with a predilection for posterior mandible was the most frequent odontogenic tumor (67.69%), followed by adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (9%), odontoma (7.77%), and calcifying odontogenic cyst (5.52%). The patients were affected over a wide age range of 5-75 years with a mean age of 32.64 years and peak occurrence in the second and third decades of life. Among the 489 cases, only 15 (3.07%) were malignant.

Conclusion. The relative frequency of 4.13% of odontogenic tumors observed in this study, which is the largest series from this part of the world. Ameloblastoma formed the single most common tumor of all odontogenic tumors. This study observed both regional and geographic variations in the frequency and distribution of odontogenic tumors.

Three months prior, in Galicia (Spain), 1200 km away from Barcelo

Three months prior, in Galicia (Spain), 1200 km away from Barcelona, a male dog of the same litter showed very similar oculodermatological clinical signs and skin histopathology, and immunohistochemistry were obtained. Results The clinical OSI-744 diagnoses were anterior exudative uveitis, iridal masses, and secondary glaucoma. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry revealed a nonepitheliotropic lymphoma rich in B cell in dog 1 and rich in T cell in dog

2. Conclusion It is proposed that an underlying genetic predisposition could have played a role in the development of lymphoma in these two young related dogs.”
“Background: Long-term stroke registries in large populations often fail to maintain accuracy. This study presents an inventory survey system for stroke registries and the incidence rate of cerebrovascular diseases in a region with the highest stroke mortality rate

in Japan. Methods: Using the data of the stroke registry determined with the inventory survey from 2004 to 2008 in northern Iwate Prefecture, with a population of 235,280 (111,584 men and 123,696 women), the age-specific annual incidence rates, the age-adjusted annual incidence rates, and the ratio of incidence rate relative to mortality rate of the cerebrovascular diseases were investigated. Results: A total of 3415 cases (1714 men and 1701 women) were registered and analyzed in this study. The age-adjusted incidence rates by the 1985 model population selleckchem of Japan and by the world standard Selleckchem SGC-CBP30 population (range 35-64 years) were 100.4 and 89.4 per 100,000 population in men and 49.8 and 29.7 in women for cerebral infarction; 53.6 and 77.2 in men and 34.2 and 39.5 in women for intracerebral hemorrhage; 12.9 and 23.3 in men and 21.1 and 34.6 in women for subarachnoid hemorrhage; and 166.9 and 189.8 in men and 105.0 and 103.7 in women for all subtypes. The ratios of incidence

rate relative to mortality rate were 1.66 for all stroke subtypes, 1.69 for cerebral infarction, 1.76 for intracerebral hemorrhage, and 1.31 for subarachnoid hemorrhage. Conclusions: High incidence rates of cerebrovascular diseases were revealed in the stroke registry with a good inventory survey in northern Iwate Prefecture, Japan.”
“From the fresh roots of Heliopsis longipes three new minor alkamides: longipinamide A (N-isobutyl-8,10-diynoic-3Z-undecenamide), longipenamide A (N-isobutyl-syn-8,9-dihydroxy-2E, 6Z-decadienamide) and longipenamide B (N-isobutyl-syn-6,9-dihydroxy-2E,7E-decadienamide); three known alkamides: affinin (spilanthol, N-isobutyl-2E,6Z,8E-decatrienamide), N-isobutyl-2E, 6Z-decadienamide and N-isobutyl-2E-decenamide; and 11 other known compounds were isolated. The structures of the three new minor alkamides were established by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy including (1)H, (13)C, DEPT, COSY, HSQC, and HMBC experiments, as well as by EI and FAB(+) mass spectrometry.

e , through control of the spatial arrangement of the high aspect

e., through control of the spatial arrangement of the high aspect ratio nanofiller platelets. C188-9 clinical trial In particular, it is shown that filler alignment can be used to improve the high electric-field breakdown strength and the recoverable energy density. The origins of the improved high field performance were traced to improved charge-trapping by a synergy of nanofillers and polar maleic anhydride (MAH) groups-introduced via polyethylene-MAH copolymers-as templated by the inorganic nanofillers. Further, it is conclusively demonstrated that the alignment of the two-dimensional nanoparticles has a measurable positive effect on the breakdown

strength of the materials and, consequently, on the maximum recoverable energy density. Selleckchem Autophagy inhibitor VC 2011 American Institute

of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3569696]“
“Sulphur is an essential element for plant growth and development as well as for defence against biotic and abiotic stresses. Increasing sulphate utilization efficiency (SUE) is an important issue for crop improvement. Little is known about the genetic determinants of sulphate utilization efficiency. No gain-of-function mutants with improved SUE have been reported to date. Here the isolation and characterization of two low-sulphur-tolerant mutants, sue3 and sue4 are reported using a high-throughput genetic screen where a ‘sulphur-free’ solid medium was devised to give the selection pressure necessary to suppress the growth of the wild-type seedlings. Both mutants showed improved tolerance to low sulphur conditions and well-developed root systems. The mutant phenotype of both sue3 and sue4 was specific to sulphate deficiency and the mutants displayed enhanced tolerance

to heavy metal and oxidative stress. Genetic analysis revealed that sue3 was caused by a single selleck recessive nuclear mutation while sue4 was caused by a single dominant nuclear mutation. The recessive locus in sue3 is the previously identified VirE2-interacting Protein 1. The dominant locus in sue4 is a function-unknown locus activated by the four enhancers on the T-DNA. The function of SUE3 and SUE4 in low sulphur tolerance was confirmed either by multiple mutant alleles or by recapitulation analysis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that this genetic screen is a reasonable approach to isolate Arabidopsis mutants with improved low sulphur tolerance and potentially with enhanced sulphate utilization efficiency. The two loci identified in sue3 and sue4 should assist in understanding the molecular mechanisms of low sulphur tolerance.”
“Nanocomposites consisting of a dielectric matrix, such as TiO(2), with embedded noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) possess specific optical properties due to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect, interesting for several applications.

OBJECTIVE: Herein, we report on a new point mutation in the SMPD-

OBJECTIVE: Herein, we report on a new point mutation in the SMPD-1 gene that was discovered in a patient with type B NPD.

METHODS AND RESULTS: A culture of the patient’s fibroblasts demonstrated that the observed clinical symptoms and reduced plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were associated with a reduced efflux of cholesterol. Examination of the skin fibroblasts demonstrated that ASM activity was reduced to approximately

60% of that observed in control cells, and a newly identified point mutation was found in codon 494 [Gly (GGT) -> Cys (TGT)] in the SMPD-1 gene. Furthermore, repeated measurements of the plasma HDL-C levels remained low (17.5-20.5 mg/dL), and the Apo Ion Channel Ligand Library research buy A-I- or HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from the patient’s fibroblasts was significantly reduced as compared with control fibroblasts.

CONCLUSION: In summary, we identified a unique point mutation in a patient with type B NPD that was associated with various clinical findings,

including a low plasma HDL-C level. This reduced cellular cholesterol efflux may be implicated, at least in part, in low plasma HDL levels. (C) 2012 National Lipid Association. All rights reserved.”
“The litter-dwelling fungus Fusarium incarnatum LD-3 has been identified as a novel producer of laccase. The present work was oriented towards the optimization of various cultivation conditions for maximizing laccase production under solid substrate fermentation. The process parameters were optimized by the “”one factor at a time”" approach. Maximum laccsase production was obtained at pH 5.0 and at a temperature of 28 A degrees C with 60 % moisture content using rice bran as a substrate. The selleck kinase inhibitor laccase production was enhanced in the presence of aromatic inducer, i.e.

ortho-dianisidine at a concentration of 0.5 mM. Laccase production was further increased by 52.56 % when the medium was supplemented with 2 % (v/v) alcohol. Among the various amino acids tested as a growth factor and nitrogen source, D-Serine and DL-2 Amino n-butyric acid, DL-Alanine and L-Glycine were found to be Salubrinal the most suitable for laccase production. The highest laccase production (1,352.64 U/g) was achieved under optimized conditions, and was 2.1-fold higher than the unoptimized conditions. Thus, the novel litter-dwelling fungal isolate Fusarium incarnatum LD-3 seems to be an efficient producer of laccase and can be further exploited for biotechnological applications. This is the first report on the optimization of cultivation conditions and inducers for laccase production from Fusarium incarnatum LD-3.”
“Introduction: Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) of the lower urinary tract has proven to be safe and effective in patients with complaints of OAB syndrome who are not responding to conservative therapy. After five years of treatment the implanted system is still effective in 56-71% of patients. The loss of effect could be caused by adaptation of the nerve system to prolonged stimulation of the sacral nerves.

It discusses the suspected

It discusses the suspected INCB018424 impacts of oxidative stress oil the gamut of events associated with IVM, including prematuration arrest, meiotic progression, chromosomal segregation. cytoskeletal architecture and gene expression. In-vivo and in-vitro strategies that may overcome the potential influences of oxidative stress oil oocyte IVM are presented. Future studies profiling the oxidative stress status of the oocyte may permit not only the formulation of a superior IVM medium that maintains ail adequate pro-/antioxidant balance, but also the identification of predictors of oocyte quality.”

hypertension in paediatric patients with ventricular septal defect remains one of the most important selleck chemical determinants of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Sildenafil is an oral, well-tolerated pulmonary vasodilator with few drug interactions. We studied the effect of oral sildenafil, when given before and after surgical closure compared with starting it postoperatively, on the pulmonary artery pressure and patients’ outcome.

We enrolled 101 infants with large ventricular septal defects who had moderate-to-severe pulmonary hypertension scheduled for surgical closure. They were randomly assigned to the sildenafil

group (n = 51, mean age 10 months and mean weight 6.5 kg), in which oral sildenafil was started 2 weeks before surgery to be continued postoperatively, and to the control group (n = 50, mean age 11 months and mean weight 7.3 kg), in which sildenafil was started only postoperatively. It was started at 0.5 mg/kg and increased gradually to a maximum dose of 2 mg/kg in both groups.

Overall hospital mortality was 4.9%. Mean pulmonary artery pressure decreased significantly at all time points of recording in both groups (P < 0.0001). In the sildenafil group, it decreased preoperatively after sildenafil administration from 75.4 to 59.4 mmHg and postoperatively from 50.4 mmHg immediate post-cardiopulmonary bypass to reach 44.2 mmHg before discharge. In the control group, it decreased from 74.6 mmHg to 51 mmHg immediate post-cardiopulmonary

bypass to reach 42.7 mmHg before discharge. No adverse effects have been recorded. Although there was no difference in the duration of mechanical ventilation and hospital stay between the two beta-catenin assay groups, intensive care unit stay was significantly shorter in the sildenafil group. Dobutamine doses were significantly higher in the sildenafil group; however, milrinone and epinephrine have been used more significantly in the control group.

The low cost, the oral availability and the good tolerability of sildenafil make it a suitable and simple alternative therapy for secondary pulmonary hypertension including persistent postoperative pulmonary hypertension associated with ventricular septal defect in resource limited places.

5 for all analyses)

Conclusion: Across both genders,

5 for all analyses).

Conclusion: Across both genders, increasing body size is characterized by a modest degree of aortic dilatation, even in the absence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors.”
“OBJECTIVE: To estimate the population-based prevalence and predictors of exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge in singleton and twin term newborns.

METHODS: We studied all hospital births in the province of Ontario, Canada, between April 1, 2009, and March 31, 2010, to perform a retrospective cohort study. We included live

singleton and twin births, at term (37 0/7 weeks of gestation to 41 6/7 weeks of gestation), with information about feeding at maternal-newborn discharge. Descriptive statistics were performed and logistic regression was used to identify factors https://www.selleckchem.com/products/epacadostat-incb024360.html related to exclusive breastfeeding.

RESULTS: Our study population consisted of 92,364 newborns, of whom 56,865 (61.6%) were exclusively breastfed at discharge. Older, nonsmoking, higher-income mothers with no pregnancy complications or reproductive assistance were more likely to breastfeed. Mothers of twins were less likely to exclusively breastfeed (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.25-0.36) as

were women Tozasertib who did not attend prenatal classes (adjusted OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.76-0.83). Compared with patients of obstetricians (57%), women cared for by midwives (87%, adjusted OR 4.49, 95% CI 4.16-4.85) and family physicians (67%, adjusted OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.47-1.61) were more likely to exclusively breastfeed. Breastfeeding after a planned (50%, adjusted OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.52-0.60) or unplanned (48%, adjusted OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.44-0.51) cesarean delivery was less common than after a spontaneous vaginal birth (68%). Neonates born at 39, 38, and 37 weeks

of gestation (compared with 41 weeks of gestation) were increasingly less likely to breastfeed (adjusted ORs 0.93, 95% CI 0.89-0.98; 0.84, 95% CI 0.80-0.88; and 0.71, 95% CI 0.67-0.76).

CONCLUSION: This large population-based study found that fewer than two thirds of term newborns are exclusively breastfed at hospital discharge, substantially lower than previously reported. (Obstet Gynecol 2012;119:1171-9) selleck chemicals llc DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e318256194b”
“Intracellular signalling cascades, in which MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinases) intermediate, are responsible for a biological response of a cell to an external stimulus. MAP kinases, which include ERK1/2 (extracellular signalling-regulated kinase), JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) and p 38 MAPK, regulate the activity of many proteins, enzymes and transcription factors and thus have a wide spectrum of biological effects. Many basic scientific studies have defined numerous details of their pathway organization and activation. There are also more and more studies suggesting that individual MAP kinases probably play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

2 angstrom(2) at 867 degrees C Both factors contribute to the ex

2 angstrom(2) at 867 degrees C. Both factors contribute to the excellent performance described for this mixed ionic-electronic conductor (MIEC) oxide as anode in single fuel cells. The dilatometric analysis shows a change of slope at around 270 degrees C that can be correlated with this tetragonal-to-cubic phase transition. The obtained thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) in the tetragonal region, between 50 and 270 degrees C is 14.5 x 10(-6) K-1 whereas in the cubic region,

between 270 and 850 degrees C, the TEC is 11.2 x 10(-6) K-1. These figures are comparable Selleckchem SCH727965 to those obtained from the mentioned structural analysis; moreover the TEC for the cubic phase perfectly matches those of the usual electrolytes in a SOFC. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3544068]“
“The aims of this study were to culturally adapt and validate the Persian

version of Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) and present data on its psychometric properties for patients with different foot and ankle problems. The Persian version of FAOS Buparlisib in vitro was developed after a standard forward-backward translation and cultural adaptation process. The sample included 93 patients with foot and ankle disorders who were asked to complete two questionnaires: FAOS and Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36). To determine test-retest reliability, 60 randomly chosen patients completed the FAOS again 2 to 6 days after the first administration. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were assessed using intraclass

correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cronbach’s alpha, respectively. To evaluate convergent and divergent validity of FAOS compared to similar and dissimilar concepts of SF-36, the Spearman’s rank correlation was used. Dimensionality was determined by assessing item-subscale correlation corrected for overlap. The results of test-retest reliability show that all the FAOS subscales have a very high ICC, ranging from 0.92 to 0.96. The minimum Cronbach’s alpha level of 0.70 was exceeded by most subscales. The Spearman’s correlation coefficient for convergent construct validity fell within 0.32 to 0.58 for the main hypotheses presented a priori between FAOS and SF-36 subscales. For dimensionality, the minimum FK506 mw Spearman’s correlation coefficient of 0.40 was exceeded by most items. In conclusion, the results of our study show that the Persian version of FAOS seems to be suitable for Iranian patients with various foot and ankle problems especially lateral ankle sprain. Future studies are needed to establish stronger psychometric properties for patients with different foot and ankle problems.”
“This investigation describes solution casting, characterization and performance evaluation of perfluorosulfonic sodium (PFSS) type membranes prepared by three different methods from Nafion solution and Nafion-117 for Chlor-Alkali (CA) application.

However, further research is needed to explore the question wheth

However, further research is needed to explore the question whether AT(2) receptor stimulation may represent a

new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of chronic kidney disease.”
“The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is well known for its vital involvement in body fluid homeostasis and circulation. However, very little research has been devoted to the impact of this regulatory system on the gastrointestinal (GI) system. This is surprising because the GI tract is fundamental for the intake and excretion of fluid and electrolytes (and nutrients), and it accommodates a large proportion of bodily haemodynamics and host defence systems. The RAS is well expressed and active in the GI tract, although the exact roles for the key mediator angiotensin II (Ang II) and its receptors in general, and the type 2 (AT(2)) receptor in particular, are not completely settled. There are several reports showing Ang II EPZ004777 clinical trial AZD5363 regulation of intestinal fluid and electrolyte transport. For example, mucosaprotective duodenal bicarbonate-rich secretion is inhibited by Ang II via type 1 (AT(1)) receptor-mediated facilitation of sympathoadrenergic activity, but this secretory process can also be stimulated by Ang II via AT(2) receptors. Novel data from human oesophagus and jejunum suggest that the AT(1) receptor mediates muscular contractions and that the AT(2) receptor regulates epithelial functions.

Data are accumulating suggesting involvement Fosbretabulin mw of AT(1) and AT(2) receptors in GI inflammation and carcinogenesis. The picture of the RAS and AT(2) receptor in the GI tract is, however, far from complete. Much more basic research is needed with regard to GI pathophysiology before concluding clinical significance and potential applicability of pharmacological interferences with the RAS.”
“Since the discovery of a renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the brain, several studies have linked this central RAS to neurological disorders such as ischaemia, Alzheimer’s disease and depression. In the last decade, evidence has accumulated that the central RAS might also play a role in Parkinson’s disease. Although the exact cause

of this progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the basal ganglia remains unidentified, inflammation and oxidative stress have been suggested to be key factors in the pathogenesis and the progression of the disease. Since angiotensin II is a pro-inflammatory compound that can induce the production of reactive oxygen species due to activation of the NADPH-dependent oxidase complex, this peptide might contribute to dopaminergic cell death. In this review, three different strategies to interfere with the pathogenesis or the progression of Parkinson’s disease are discussed. They include inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme, blockade of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor and stimulation of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor.