8 The long-term prognosis for individuals with NAFLD and NASH has

8 The long-term prognosis for individuals with NAFLD and NASH has been investigated in population-based studies9, 10 as well as in a cohort study in which NAFLD was considerd by biopsy,11 with a longest follow-up period so far of 14 years. Although the overall survival in connection with NAFLD was found to be slightly decreased,9 this reduction has been attributed to enhanced mortality, specifically among Proteasome inhibitor the subpopulation suffering from NASH,11 in which case bland steatosis might not alter the risk of death. The longer-term survival for subjects with NAFLD (with and without steatohepatitis) in comparison with both those with elevated serum levels

of transaminases from other causes and the general poulation is thus incompletely characterized. The aim of the current investigation was to examine the mortality and causes of death in a cohort of subjects with elevated serum levels of aminotransaminases. Furthermore, we wanted to determine the frequency of NAFLD and NASH in this population and compare the survival and causes of death in NAFLD subjects

of those subjects with other liver diseases, and of the general population. AFLD, alcoholic fatty liver disease; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; CI, confidence interval; Selleckchem Carfilzomib HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma; NAFLD, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; NASH, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; SMR, standardized mortality ratio. Between 1980 and 1984, 232 subjects with unexplained elevated serum levels of ALT, and therefore referred to our unit, have been characterized in a retrospective (n = 149) and a prospective (n = 83) study by Hultcrantz and coworkers.4, 5 Twenty-four additional subjects excluded from this previous prospective study because of a lack of radiological data were also included in the current follow-up study, giving 256 subjects altogether. The inclusion criteria were persistently elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) for longer than 6 months. Subjects with symptoms or clinical

signs of liver disease were excluded, as were those with serum levels of alkaline phosphate (greater than twice the upper normal limit, that is, >4.2 μkat/L) MCE and those exhibiting clinical or laboratory signs of kidney disease. The mean age at the time of liver biopsy was 48.5 years for the men and 48.3 years for the women in the retrospective study, and the corresponding ages in the prospective study were 41 and 42 years, respectively (Table 1). Unless otherwise stated in the medical chart by the two physicians (and co-authors R.H. and G.L.), the patient was assumed not to overconsume alcohol. A great deal of effort was put into uncovering any such overconsumption at the time. As noted in the medical records, testing for hepatitis C virus had been performed on 70 of our subjects, and 37 were positive.

There was no evidence of publication bias except for HBeAg cleara

There was no evidence of publication bias except for HBeAg clearance rate. The results of the current meta-analysis indicate that HBV genotype B patients receiving interferon therapy respond better to treatment compared with genotype C patients, but this needs to be further examined. “
“Among multiple isoforms of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced form (NADPH) oxidase expressed in the

liver, the phagocytic NOX2 isoform in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) has been demonstrated to play a key learn more role in liver fibrogenesis. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of NOX1, a nonphagocytic form of NADPH oxidase, in the development of fibrosis using Nox1-deficient mice (Nox1KO). Liver injury and fibrosis were induced by bile duct ligation (BDL) and carbon tetrachloride in Nox1KO and wildtype littermate

mice (WT). Primary HSCs were isolated to characterize the NOX1-induced signaling cascade involved in liver fibrogenesis. Following BDL, a time-dependent increase check details in NOX1 messenger RNA (mRNA) was demonstrated in WT liver. Compared with those in WT, levels of collagen-1α mRNA and hydroxyproline were significantly suppressed in Nox1KO with a reduced number of activated HSCs and less severe fibrotic lesions. The expression levels of α-smooth muscle actin, a marker of HSCs activation, were similar in cultured HSCs isolated from both genotypes. However, cell proliferation was significantly attenuated in HSCs isolated from Nox1KO. In these cells, the expression of p27kip1, a cell cycle suppressor, was significantly up-regulated. Concomitantly, a significant reduction MCE公司 in phosphorylated forms of Akt and forkhead box O (FOXO) 4, a downstream effector of Akt that regulates the transcription of p27kip1 gene, was demonstrated in Nox1KO. Finally, the level of the oxidized inactivated form of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a negative regulator of PI3K/Akt pathway, was significantly attenuated in HSCs of Nox1KO. These findings indicate that reactive oxygen species derived

from NOX1/NADPH oxidase oxidize and inactivate PTEN to positively regulate the Akt/FOXO4/p27kip1 signaling pathway. NOX1 may thus promote proliferation of HSCs and accelerate the development of fibrosis following BDL-induced liver injury. (HEPATOLOGY 2011;) Liver fibrosis, characterized by accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM), is a wound-healing response to acute or chronic liver injury. Chronic hepatitis viral infection, alcohol abuse, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are among the etiological factors documented in the development of liver fibrosis.1, 2 Upon acute or chronic injury, the liver undergoes an injury/repair process accompanied by an inflammatory response and deposition of ECM. During the progression of fibrosis, apoptosis is promoted and inflammatory cells are increasingly recruited, which can further worsen the liver function and tissue damage. In the fibrotic process, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the major source of ECM.

Whenever hepatotoxicity is referred to as idiosyncratic, this ter

Whenever hepatotoxicity is referred to as idiosyncratic, this term implies the unusual presence of one or several factors that contribute to the development of DILI in an individual patient. As an attempt to identify these factors, mechanistic and also pharmacogenetic studies of DILI have long focused on the formation of toxic and immunogenic drug metabolites, and more recently also on hepatobiliary transporters. However, variability of

drug and metabolite (formation) kinetics does not provide a sufficient explanation for the idiosyncratic occurrence of DILI.5, 6 In a landmark review on idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity published in 2005, Kaplowitz see more described the emerging concept of drug-specific “upstream” events that cause initial hepatocyte injury followed by less specific “downstream” events that sensitively balance injurious versus protective selleck chemicals cellular pathways.7 Considering also the central role of mitochondria in DILI,8-10 we recently integrated current mechanistic concepts in a comprehensive working model that defines three major consecutive steps in the pathogenesis of DILI.11 According to this model, drugs or their

metabolites first cause direct cell stress (intrinsic pathway), trigger immune reactions (extrinsic MCE pathway), and/or

directly impair mitochondrial function. Second, this “initial hit” may lead to mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), which in a third and final step can initiate apoptotic or necrotic cell death (Fig. 1). From a pharmacogenetic perspective, immune reactions are of particular interest because they depend on the highly variable HLA system (the human major histocompatibility complex [MHC]) that is encoded on chromosome 6. Drugs or their reactive metabolites can covalently bind to proteins and form immunogenic haptens or exert a direct pharmacologic interaction with T cell immune receptors without covalent binding (named the “p-i concept”) and subsequently stimulate HLA-dependent T cell recognition of drugs and further T cell–mediated immune reactions.12 A recent study suggested that genetic HLA variation is particularly relevant for the development of cholestatic or mixed forms of DILI,13 whereas another study was also able to find an association between HLA variants and an increase in aminotransferases of at least three-fold under treatment with ximelagatran.

An important discovery in this study was that CMV infection was a

An important discovery in this study was that CMV infection was associated with the most significant decreases of Tregs in the peripheral blood of BA patients. Our findings of decreased learn more Treg levels associated with CMV infection are consistent

with recently published reports. Li et al.58 found that murine CMV infection led to a significantly decreased proportion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs in splenocytes during the first 30 days after CMV infection. In that study, the murine CMV infection was chronic and by 60 days the Treg quantities had recovered. Hayashi et al.59 described decreased Foxp3 expression associated with increased CMV-specific cytotoxic T-cell responses in patients with intercurrent CMV infection and T-lymphotropic virus type 1-associated myelopathy (tropical spastic paraparesis). Future studies in BA will investigate if Treg deficiencies are persistent over time and if Treg function is altered. In order to address the possible role of autoimmunity in bile duct injury, liver T-cell reactivity studies in older children with BA will focus on identification of T-cell responses to bile duct epithelial proteins. Additional Supporting Information

may be found in the online version of this article. “
“The Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) studies hepatotoxicity caused by conventional medications as well as herbals and dietary supplements (HDS). To characterize hepatotoxicity and its outcomes from HDS versus medications, patients with hepatotoxicity attributed to medications or Erastin datasheet HDS were

enrolled prospectively between 2004 and 2013. The study took place among eight U.S. referral centers that are part of the DILIN. Consecutive patients with liver injury referred to a DILIN center were eligible. medchemexpress The final sample comprised 130 (15.5%) of all subjects enrolled (839) who were judged to have experienced liver injury caused by HDS. Hepatotoxicity caused by HDS was evaluated by expert opinion. Demographic and clinical characteristics and outcome assessments, including death and liver transplantation (LT), were ascertained. Cases were stratified and compared according to the type of agent implicated in liver injury; 45 had injury caused by bodybuilding HDS, 85 by nonbodybuilding HDS, and 709 by medications. Liver injury caused by HDS increased from 7% to 20% (P < 0.001) during the study period. Bodybuilding HDS caused prolonged jaundice (median, 91 days) in young men, but did not result in any fatalities or LT. The remaining HDS cases presented as hepatocellular injury, predominantly in middle-aged women, and, more frequently, led to death or transplantation, compared to injury from medications (13% vs. 3%; P < 0.05). Conclusions: The proportion of liver injury cases attributed to HDS in DILIN has increased significantly.

58 ± 1377 years We observed PEP in 24 out of 169 patients (14%)

58 ± 13.77 years. We observed PEP in 24 out of 169 patients (14%), 13 males (54.2%) and 11 females (45.8%). Mean duration of procedure was 45 ± 26.00 min. Mean values of bilirubin in the PEP patients was 193 ± 31.22 μmol/l.

We found significant positive correlation between level of total bilirubin, t 1.93 (df = 2.167) p < 0.05 and GGT t 2.35 (df 2.167) p < 0.02 with occurrence of PEP. There is no correlation between AP and incidence of PEP, t −0.106 (df 2.167) p < 0.05. Conclusion: Higher values of cholestatic markers observed in patients who developed PEP may be independent predictor for development of PEP. Key Word(s): 1. ERCP; 2. Pancreatitis; http://www.selleckchem.com/products/epacadostat-incb024360.html Presenting Author: ITOKAWA FUMIHIDE Additional Authors: ITOI TAKAO Corresponding Author: ITOKAWA FUMIHIDE Affiliations: No Objective: : Endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) plus large balloon dilation (ESLBD) can be

useful for extracting large and multiple bile duct stones. Although there are many studies on the feasibility and short-term outcome, there are few reports about mid- to long-term outcome after ESLBD. The aim of our study is to evaluate the mid-term outcome of ESLBD. Methods: The records of 168 patients who underwent ESLBD between November 2006 and December 2011 were reviewed. The patients were observed until November 2012. Papillary dilation using large dilating balloon was performed following ES or prior ES. Results: The patients’ Trametinib mean age was 76.8 ± 9.8 years. Two cases received gastrectomy, 11 Billroth II gastrectomy and 15 with Roux-en Y reconstruction. Seventy (41.7%) patients had periampullary diverticulum. Prior ES had been performed on 33 (19.6%) patients. The mean follow-up period was 39.6 ± 13.7 months (range 11–69). Seven (4.2%) patients had stone recurrence (mean age 72.8 ± 7.8, Billroth MCE公司 II gastrectomy (1), gallstones (3), periampullary diverticulum (1), history of stone recurrence after prior ES (6)). There was no recurrence of stone in patients who first had ESLBD treatment with normal anatomy. Univariate analysis showed that prior ES and previous history of stone recurrence were predictive variables that could differentiate these

patients from the non-recurrence group. Multivariate analysis also showed that these were risk factors of stone recurrence (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Our mid-term outcome revealed that ESLBD itself has a low risk of recurrence of bile duct stones, although a favorable long-term outcome is mandatory. Key Word(s): 1. EPLBD; 2. bile duct stone; 3. ESLBD; Presenting Author: RASOUL SOTOUDEHMANESH Additional Authors:, MOHAMMAD REZA MOHAJERI_TEHRANI, ROYA RAHIMI, MORTEZA KHATIBIAN, JAVAD MIKAELI Corresponding Author: RASOUL SOTOUDEHMANESH Affiliations: Digestive Disease Research Center Objective: Diabetes is considered as one of the most common underlying causes of gallstone. The present study therefore was designed to evaluate the prevalence of gallstone in diabetic patients.

Caviglia et al [13] published the most extensive series with 19

Caviglia et al. [13] published the most extensive series with 19 patients who underwent extension osteotomies during a 30-year period. In six patients with fixed knees in flexion, the

range of motion was not regained. The arc of movement did not change in six, Cell Cycle inhibitor decreased in four and increased in the three remaining patients by only 10°. Postoperative bleeding, temporary proneal nerve paralysis, genu recurvatum and relapsed flexion deformity were the reported complications. They concluded that although this operation aligns the limb, it hardly influences the range of motion. Mortazavi et al. [14] reported the outcome of 11 trapezoid supracondylar extension osteotomy during a 5-year period. The patients were followed JQ1 in vitro up for an average 43.4 months after surgery. They showed that all of the patients gained the ability to function more independently after the operation; they could walk, climb the stairs, bathe and use public means of transportation by themselves. The arc of motion increased in all of the knees which had some range of motion before surgery. This was in contrast

to results of previous studies on V-shaped osteotomies. Using rigid internal fixation and early physiotherapy range of motion may well be a reason, but they proposed that the higher degrees of release of extensor mechanism gained by femoral shortening in trapezoid osteotomy compared with V-shaped ones could be another mechanism for this difference. This shortening may also reduce the risk of neurovascular complications. There were few minor postoperative complications and this operation seems to be safe. The trapezoid supracondylar femoral extension osteotomy could be considered an alternative in the management of severe,

fixed flexion contracture of the knee joint that is unresponsive to conservative measures in patients with haemophilia. The knee is the most commonly involved joint in haemophilia and the most responsible for long-term disability. Most patients with serious complications of haemophilic arthroplasthy are treated with elective total joint arthroplasty to reduce the rates of haemarthrosis, pain and functional impairment. There 上海皓元 are significant challenges facing the surgeon undertaking total knee replacement in the patient with haemophilic arthropathy; notably, the frequent coexistence of articular contractions of the knee. By that point, the synovium progresses from a hypervascular, hyperplastic synovium to one that is largely fibrous tissue. Generally, this results in a fixed flexion deformity and associated reduction in the range of flexion. It is not unusual for the flexion deformity to be complicated by posterior subluxation and external rotation of the tibia. This poses significant challenges in terms of surgical exposure and performance of joint replacement, and also in terms of obtaining adequate functional range of motion, postoperatively.

Radioisotopic synovectomy

using a pure beta emitter (phos

Radioisotopic synovectomy

using a pure beta emitter (phosphorus-32 or yttrium-90) is highly effective, has few side effects, and can be accomplished in an outpatient setting. (Level 4) [[18, Fostamatinib ic50 19]] A single dose of clotting factor is often sufficient for a single injection of the isotope. Rehabilitation is less intense than after surgical synovectomy, but is still required to help the patient regain strength, proprioception, and normal functional use of the joint. If a radioisotope is not available, chemical synoviorthesis with either rifampicin or oxytetracycline chlorhydrate is an appropriate alternative [[20, 21]]. Chemical synoviorthesis involves weekly injections until the synovitis is controlled. These painful injections require the administration of intra-articular xilocaine a few minutes before injection of the sclerosing agent, oral analgesics

(a combination of acetaminophen/paracetamol and an opioid), and a dose of clotting factor concentrate prior to each injection. The low cost of the chemical agent is offset by the need for multiple injections of factor concentrate. Rehabilitation, as described for radioactive synovectomy, is recommended. Surgical synovectomy, whether open or arthroscopic, requires a large supply of clotting factor for both surgery and the lengthy period of rehabilitation. The procedure must be performed by an experienced team at a dedicated hemophilia treatment center. It is only considered when other less invasive and equally effective procedures fail. Chronic hemophilic arthropathy can develop any time from the second decade of life selleck chemical (and sometimes earlier), depending on the severity of bleeding and its treatment. The process is set in motion by the immediate effects of blood on the articular cartilage during hemarthrosis [[1, 2]] and reinforced by persistent chronic synovitis and recurrent hemarthroses, resulting in irreversible damage. With advancing cartilage loss, a progressive arthritic condition develops that includes: secondary soft tissue contractures muscle atrophy angular deformities Deformity can also be enhanced by contracture following muscle bleeds or neuropathy.

Loss of motion is common, with flexion contractures causing the most significant functional MCE公司 loss. Joint motion and weight bearing can be extremely painful. As the joint deteriorates, swelling subsides due to progressive fibrosis of the synovium and the capsule. If the joint becomes ankylosed, pain may diminish or disappear. The radiographic features of chronic hemophilic arthropathy depend on the stage of involvement. Radiographs will only show late osteochondral changes. [[22, 23]] Ultrasound or MRI examination will show early soft tissue and osteochondral changes. [[24-26]] Cartilage space narrowing will vary from minimal to complete loss. Bony erosions and subchondral bone cysts will develop, causing collapse of articular surfaces that can lead to angular deformities. Fibrous/bony ankylosis may be present.

It most closely resembles C muscicola, particularly in ecology;

It most closely resembles C. muscicola, particularly in ecology; see varieties of that species. Given its phylogenetic position (Fig. 1a, clade Y), it is likely not a Cylindrospermum species. Cylindrospermum siamensis (Antarikanonda) Johansen comb. nov. (Fig. 7, l–r) Basionym: Anabaena siamensis Antarikanonda (1985, p. 345). Homotypic synonyms: Anabaenopsis siamensis (Antarikanonda) Komárek and Anagnostidis (1989), Richelia siamensis (Antarikanonda)

Hindák (2000), Cronbergia siamensis Komárek, Zapomělová et Hindák AZD3965 nmr (2010). Thallus soft, dark green to olive green when old, forming small clusters of denser biomass. Filaments mostly short, in diffluent mucilage. Trichomes strongly constricted at cross-walls, 4–4.5 μm wide. Cells cylindrical-rounded, mostly isodiametric, 3–5 μm long. Heterocytes terminal at one or both ends of the trichome, spherical or elongated, 3.5 μm this website wide, 4 μm long. Intercalary formation of proheterocytes prior to the filament fragmentation not confirmed. Enlarged cells (akinetes?) observed only when already

detached from the filament, spherical to oval, with thin smooth exospore and tan colored coarsely granulated content, 5–5.5 wide, 6.5–7 long. Reference strain: SAG 11.82/CCALA 756. This taxon is phylogenetically inseparable from Cylindrospermum sensu stricto (Fig. 1a, clade X). It differs morphologically from the other species in the genus both in the form of trichome fragmentation and small size of akinetes. One of the primary goals of this work was to determine whether or not Cylindrospermum was a monophyletic genus. It appears that taxa with the distinctive morphology of the genus comprise three separate clades (Fig. 1a, clades X, Y, Z) and so species in the genus could represent as many as three genera. The PMC group (clade Z) is especially dissimilar (<95.7% similar), and almost surely represents a different genus. We did not describe it in this article because we have not examined these strains. In addition, the 16S-23S ITS should be sequenced, in our opinion, before a new genus is recognized. 上海皓元 The members of

the tropical taxa (clade Y) are 96.0%–97.5% similar to Cylindrospermum sensu stricto (clade X), but this is a lower level of similarity than can be found between Aulosira bohemensis or Nostoc commune NC1 and clade X, which supports the idea that these clades, which are separated by geographical and climatic criteria, represent different genera. In part, it was the recognition of these two clades (much less intensely sampled) that led Komárek et al. (2010) to split out Cronbergia from Cylindrospermum. The possible restriction of Cylindrospermum sensu stricto to temperate aerial habitats needs confirmation, which will be best obtained by more thoroughly collecting, isolating, and sequencing tropical strains conforming to the morphological taxonomic circumscription of Cylindrospermum.

6 d−1) in a suitable culture medium prepared at our laboratory T

6 d−1) in a suitable culture medium prepared at our laboratory. The growth was shown to be iron dependent. When the microalga is grown

in fluidized bed reactors, the high growth rates resulted in unexpectedly high productivities for being a microalga that naturally grows in acidic environments (0.32 g·L−1·d−1). The microalga also grows optimally on reduced carbon sources, including glucose and urea, and at an optimal temperature of 35°C. The alga pigment profile is particularly rich in carotenoids, especially lutein, suggesting that the microalga might have potential for antioxidant production, namely, xanthophylls. “
“Sargassum muticum (Yendo) Fensholt is one of EPZ6438 the most well-known invasive species in the world. There have, however, been few genetic investigations on both its introduced and native populations. There are also some questions about the taxonomic status of this species. This study is the first to assess the genetic diversity of S. muticum on a global scale, by utilizing Alvelestat clinical trial one marker each from the extranuclear genomes, namely, plastidial RUBISCO and mitochondrial TrnW_I spacers, as well as the nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2). Based

on the markers investigated, both the invasive as well as the native populations of this species appeared very homogenous, when compared with other invasive and brown macroalgae. No variation in ITS2 and RUBISCO spacer was revealed in 上海皓元医药股份有限公司 S. muticum populations, including those from its native ranges in Asia and the introduced ranges in Europe and North America. Two TrnW_I spacer haplotypes with a fixed two-nucleotide difference were found between the populations of eastern Japan and the other 15 populations examined. This study confirms that there is no cryptic diversity in the introduced range of this species. All the materials collected globally are indeed S. muticum. Results depicting the distribution range of the two TrnW_I spacer haplotypes also support the earlier suggestion that the source

of the introduced S. muticum populations is most likely western and central Japan (Seto Inland Sea), where the germlings of S. muticum were likely to have been transported with the Pacific oysters previously introduced for farming in Canada, UK, and France in earlier years. “
“The alkaline phosphatase (AP) characteristics of three algal bloom species in the coastal waters of China [Prorocentrum donghaiense D. Lu, Alexandrium catenella (Whedon et Kof.) Balech, and Skeletonema costatum (Grev.) Cleve] were analyzed in a laboratory batch culture experiment using bulk assay and the single-cell enzyme-labeled fluorescence (ELF) method. Results showed that the AP of these three test species shared some common characteristics: AP was inducible in all three species and was expressed by algae under phosphorus (P)–stress conditions; no constitutive AP enzyme was detected in the three test species.

Of the 48 pilot whales for which stomach contents were obtained,

Of the 48 pilot whales for which stomach contents were obtained, 6 had stranded along the coast of northern

Portugal, 32 in Galicia click here (northwest Spain), and 10 in Scotland (Table 1). The final set of samples comprised stomach contents from 24 females, 19 males, and 5 individuals for which sex could not be determined due to the poor state of preservation of the carcasses. Most of the whales in the sample had stranded in the first half of the year (1st and 2nd quarters). The length of the animals ranged between 213 and 555 cm (Fig. 2). Following the length-based criteria of Bloch et al. (1993) most of the sample set comprised immature individuals (Table 1). Remains of 2,347 individual prey items were recovered from the stomachs. Pilot whale diet consisted mainly of cephalopods (98.9% by number), but also included fish, crustaceans, and other molluscs (0.9%, 0.1%, and <0.1% by number, respectively) selleck kinase inhibitor (Table 2). Overall, remains of 2,322 individual cephalopods belonging to at least 18 species of 12 families were found, corresponding to a total reconstituted mass of ca. 694 kg. In

terms of numerical importance, Octopodidae were the most abundant group in Iberian samples (58.2% in Portugal and 72.3% in Galicia), with Eledone cirrhosa being the most abundant species (Table 2, Fig. 3). In terms of biomass, Octopodidae were by far the most important prey group for the whales stranded in Galicia (representing more than 78% of the reconstructed weight of all prey), with E. cirrhosa again being the most important 上海皓元医药股份有限公司 prey species (58.6% by weight) (Table 2). The family Ommastrephidae was the most abundant prey group taken by the pilot whales stranded in Scotland (36.6% by number), contributing

more than 80% to the reconstructed prey weight. It was also the most important group by weight in the diet of whales stranded in Portugal, although not the most numerous. The ommastrephid squid Todarodes sagitattus was the main prey species by weight in both Scotland and Portugal (80.6% and 53% by weight, respectively), although it only represented one-third of the prey numbers in Scotland and half that amount in Portugal, reflecting the relative large size of the individual squid (e.g., those in samples from Scotland ranged from 21 to 54 cm dorsal mantle length) (Table 2). Fish remains appeared in a total of 12 stomachs across the three areas, almost always representing very small numbers of fish (one or two), the exception being a Scottish sample that contained 18 otoliths. Although identification of the eroded fish remains was difficult, fish belonging to the family Gadidae were identified in Scotland and fish of the Gadidae, Merluccidae, and Carangidae in Galicia. Crustacean remains were found in three stomachs, generally in a poor state of preservation, and only remains of the swimming crab Polybius henslowii could be identified to species level in the stomach of one of the Galician whales.