of hydroperoxide formation was examined on the basis of previously proposed mechanisms and found to be of the half-order with respect to the concentration of conjugated diene hydroperoxide. The amounts of added antioxidants remaining in sunflower oil after different microwave heating periods at different temperatures were determined by HPLC-DAD. The results were interpreted in terms of antioxidative effects of carnosic acid and sesamol. Carnosic acid was found to be a more effective antioxidant find more than sesamol for sunflower oil. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“To establish whether a nurse-led urogynecology triage clinic (UTC) is effective in terms of patient journey (from primary referral to first hospital contact until discharge), diagnosis, management, and outcomes.
The case notes of 300 patients attending the UTC in a university hospital between
January 2006 and November 2007 were randomly selected for review.
The mean interval from referral to first visit AICAR PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor improved from 15.6 weeks (range = 12-32 weeks) to 4.6 weeks (range = 1-11 weeks, SD = 1.97) after UTC. Compared to pre-UTC, the mean period from first visit to final outcome improved from 11 months (range = 3.0-23.0 months) to 8.8 weeks (range = < 1-60 weeks, SD = 11.15). Fifty-nine percent were discharged from the UTC without being seen by a specialist.
By service redesigning, the UTC has reduced the number of clinic visits and patient journey time and has also shown that the majority of women with incontinence can be adequately managed by a specialist nurse.”
“Lung metastasectomy is an area of interest and controversy in surgical oncology. Most of the available evidence derives from small cohorts with short follow-up. The aim of this study was to evaluate the oncologic outcomes in an 18-year cohort
from a single center. We retrospectively reviewed 398 patients this website with several malignancies who underwent lung metastasectomy between January 1990 and December 2008. Demographic, clinical, and surgical variables were evaluated. Uni- and multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with overall survival (OS). Mean follow-up was 20 months. Wedge resection was performed in 297 cases and 101 required anatomic resections. In 303 patients the disease-free interval (DFI) was >6 months meanwhile 95 patients had a DFI <= 6 months. Complete resection was achieved in 351 patients (88.2%). Median OS for all patients was 81.9 months (95% CI, 36.9-126.9). On multivariate analysis, factors associated with a poor overall survival were DFI <6 months (HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.24-2.4; p = 0.001) and incomplete resection (HR, 1.58 95% CI, 1.01-2.5; p = 0.0047).
The relativistic electron energy is related to the polariton group velocity, which is close to the velocity of light in this case. The plasma pulse is polarized, and the electron number in the pulse is estimated as being proportional to the square root of the laser intensity and the 3/2-power of the pulse size.
It is shown that Compton (Thomson) backscattering by such polaritonic pulses of electrons may produce coherent X- and gamma rays, as a consequence of the quasirigidity of the electrons inside the polaritonic pulses and their relatively large number. The classical results of the Compton scattering are re-examined in this context, the energy of the scattered photons and their cross-section are analyzed, especially for backscattering, the great enhancement of the scattered flux of X-or gamma rays due to the coherence effect is highlighted and numerical estimates are given for some typical situations. Caspase activation (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3530599]“
“As a part of understanding the hydrolysis of cured urea formaldehyde (UF) resins that has been known as responsible for the formaldehyde emission, leading to sick building syndrome, selleck screening library this study attempted
to investigate the morphology and to detect chemical elements of the cured UF resins of different formaldehyde/urea (F/ U) mole ratios and hardener (NH(4)Cl) levels, using field emission-scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Cured UF resins of low F/U mole ratio showed spherical structure whose diameter increased with an increase in the hardener level, whereas this was not observed for high F/U mole ratio UF resins regardless of the hardener levels. The energy-dispersive spectroscopy results showed five different chemical elements such as carbon,
nitrogen, oxygen, chloride, and sodium in cured UF resins. The chloride distribution assumed as the presence of residual acid in the cured UF resins suggested that the hydrolysis of cured UF resins could initiate at the sites of chlorides on the surface of the spherical structures. As the hardener level increased, the quantities of both carbon and oxygen decreased, whereas those of nitrogen and chloride increased as expected. But the quantity of sodium was within measurement JNK-IN-8 error. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 120: 1475-1482, 2011″
“Materials and methods: 56 mice and 40 rats were divided into four groups. Histamine and histamine-irradiated groups received a daily subcutaneous histamine injection (0.1 mg/kg) starting 24 h before irradiation. Irradiated groups received a single dose on whole-body using Cesium-137 source and were sacrificed three days after irradiation. We evaluated the number of medullar components, bone marrow trophism, oedema, vascular damage, and other histological characteristics and also proliferation markers by immunohistochemistry.
The 11 beta-HSD1 is believed to maintain tonic inhibition of the mineralocorticoid receptor in cardiomyocytes, and mineralocorticoid
receptor activation is involved in the pathophysiology of LVH. We assessed the association between polymorphisms in the HSD11B1 gene and left ventricular mass (LVM) in 248 families ascertained through a proband with hypertension.
Methods and Results-LVM was measured by electrocardiography and echocardiography in 868 and 829 participants, PCI 32765 respectively. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging common variation in the HSD11B1 gene were genotyped by mass spectrometry. The rs846910 SNP, which lies in the flanking region 5′ to exon 1B of HSD11B1, was associated with LVM both by electrocardiography (approximate to 5% lower LVM per copy of the rare allele, P = 0.02) and by echocardiography (approximate to 10% lower LVM per copy of the rare allele, P = 0.003). Genotype explained 1% to 2% of the population variability in LVM, or approximately 5% of the heritable fraction. There were no significant
associations this website between any HSD11B1 SNP and blood pressure or body mass index that could have confounded the association with LVM.
Conclusions-Genotype at HSD11B1 has a small, but significant effect on LVM, apparently independently of any effect on obesity-related traits. These findings suggest a novel action of 11 beta-HSD1 in the human cardiomyocyte, which may be of therapeutic importance. (Circ
Cardiovasc Genet. 2011;4:156-162.)”
“Metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor thin-film capacitors with Pb(Zr-0.6,Ti-0.4)O-3 (PZT) ferroelectric layer and high-k lanthanum oxide (La2O3) insulator layer were fabricated. The outdiffusion of atoms between La2O3 and silicon was examined by the secondary-ion-mass spectroscopy. The size of memory window as a function of PZT annealing temperature was discussed. The maximum memory window saturated to 0.7 V, which is close to the theoretical memory window Delta W approximate to 2d(f)E(c)approximate to 0.8 V with higher annealing temperatures above 700 degrees C. The memory window starts to decrease due to charge injection when the sweep voltage is higher than 5 V at 600 degrees C-annealed samples. The C-V flatband voltage shift (Delta V-FB) as a function of charge injection was characterized in MLN4924 this work. An energy band diagram of the Al/PZT//La2O3/p-Si system was proposed to explain the memory window and the flatband voltage shift.”
“The aim of this study was to evaluate the nematocidal effects of natural phytoregulators jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl-jasmonate (MJ) against plant parasitic nematodes Pratylenchus zeae (Graham) (Pratylenchidae) and Helicotylenchus spp. (Hoplolaimidae). Both JA and MJ promoted elevated percentages of mortality in P. zeae and Helicotylenchus spp. after 12 and 24h of nematodes exposition at different concentrations of jasmonates.
), Cassia fistula (L.) (Caesalpiniaceae) and Biophytum sensitivum (L.) (Oxalidaceae) were evaluated for rat lens aldose reductase inhibitory (RLAR) potential, anti-cataract
and antioxidant activities. All the samples inhibited the aldose reductase considerably and exhibited anti-cataract activity, while C. fistula (IC50, 0.154 mg mL-1) showed significant RLAR inhibitory activity as compared to the other tested samples, and was further found to be more effective in maintaining sugar-induced lens opacity in the rat lens model. The antioxidant potential of plant extracts was determined using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazine), hydroxyl (OH), nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging activities, along with determination of reducing power, ferrous ion chelating ability and inhibition of polyphenol oxidase (PPO). The extracts of the tested plant showed significant free radical scavenging activities and inhibited BB-94 supplier the activity of enzyme PPO, a model oxidising enzyme. The plant samples were found to possess considerable amounts of vitamin C, total polyphenols and flavonoids.”
“Salivary gland tumours represent 1-4% of all human neoplasms
and less than 5% occur in children and adolescents. Malignant salivary gland tumours only represent 0.08% of all childhood tumours and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common histological type. The majority of MECs in the paediatric group are histologically classified as low or intermediate grade of malignancy, favouring a good prognosis. Complete excision of the lesion Selleck LY3023414 with free surgical margins is the treatment of choice and the one that offers the best local control of the disease. Experience with minor salivary gland carcinoma arising specifically within the nasopharynx is limited because Geneticin nasopharyngeal MEC is an extremely rare malignancy and there is controversy regarding its optimal treatment. We hereby report a case of mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising from the nasopharynx in a 7-year-old girl, which was managed via an endonasal
endoscopic procedure. To our knowledge the case we describe is the second case of nasopharyngeal MEC in paediatric age reported in literature and is the only one occurred in the first decade of life. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a motor disorder of the orofacial region resulting from chronic neuroleptic treatment. The agents improving dopaminergic transmission improve TD. Mucuna pruriens seed contains levodopa and amino acids. The effect of methanolic extract of M. pruriens seeds (MEMP) was studied on haloperidol-induced TD, alongside the changes in lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase levels. The effect of MEMP was also evaluated in terms of the generation of hydroxyl and 1,1-diphenyl,2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical.
Environmental, epidemiologic and familial factors play an important role in pathogenesis of
OME. Caretakers must be informed about these highly modifiable risk factors, by this way the development or delayed diagnosis of the disease that may cause serious consequences can be prevented. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose of reviewAnorexia nervosa is among the most prevalent chronic medical conditions in young adults. It has acute as well as long-term consequences, some of which, such as low bone mineral density (BMD), are not completely reversible even after weight restoration. This review discusses our current understanding of endocrine consequences of anorexia nervosa.Recent findingsAnorexia nervosa is Selleckchem HDAC inhibitor AZD1152 supplier characterized
by changes in multiple neuroendocrine axes including acquired hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, growth hormone resistance with low insulin-like growth factor-1 (likely mediated by fibroblast growth factor-1), relative hypercortisolemia, alterations in adipokines such as leptin, adiponectin and resistin, and gut peptides including ghrelin, PYY and amylin. These changes in turn contribute to low BMD. Studies in anorexia nervosa have demonstrated abnormalities in bone microarchitecture and strength, and an association between increased marrow fat and decreased BMD. One study in adolescents reported an improvement in BMD following physiologic estrogen replacement, and another in adults demonstrated improved BMD following risedronate administration. Brown adipose tissue is reduced in anorexia nervosa,
consistent with an adaptive response to the energy deficit state.SummaryAnorexia nervosa is associated with widespread physiologic adaptations to the underlying state of undernutrition. Hormonal changes in anorexia nervosa affect BMD adversely. Further investigation is underway to optimize therapeutic strategies for low BMD.”
“Coronary collaterals are present at birth, with wide interindividual AP24534 concentration variation in their functional capacity. These vessels protect jeopardized myocardium, and the number of collaterals and the extent of their coverage are associated with improved survival in patients with coronary heart disease. The collateral circulation is not a permanent set of structures, but undergoes dynamic changes with important consequences for cardioprotection. If a severe atherosclerotic lesion develops in an artery supplying tissue downstream of a total occlusion through collateral blood flow, pressure gradients across the collateral bed change. The result is that some of the collateral flow previously supplying the perfusion territory of the totally occluded artery is redirected to the perfusion territory of the donor artery, thus producing a ‘collateral steal’. The collateral circulation can regress once antegrade flow in the main dependent artery is re-established, as occurs following the recanalization of a chronic total occlusion.
Nevertheless, more studies would be needed to optimize the clinical guidelines for the treatment of these patients. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2009;107:387-392)”
aniline and pyrrole was synthesized by inverted emulsion polymerization method by oxidizing aniline and pyrrole using benzoyl peroxide in presence of sodium YH25448 cost laurylsulphate surfactant and p-toluenesulphonic acid. Copolymer samples were characterized by infrared, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopic techniques and compared their properties with the corresponding homopolymers. The optimum reaction conditions for the preparation of copolymer with reasonably good yield (1.72 g) and conductivity (7.3 x 10(-2) S/cm) were established. The synthesis procedure was extended to prepare copolymer samples using various protonic acids. Electrochemical characterization such as cyclic voltammetry, charge-discharge and impedance were carried out on symmetrical supercapacitor cell consists of poly(aniline-co-pyrrole)-p-toluenesulfonic acid salt,
wherein, the copolymer salt was synthesized using equal amount of aniline and pyrrole monomers. The values of specific capacitance, energy and power check details densities for poly(aniline-co-pyrrole)-p-toluenesulfonic acid system (PANI-PPy) were calculated from charge-discharge studies and are found to be 21 F/g, 5.7 Wh/Kg and 100 W/Kg respectively. Impedance analysis showed specific capacitance value (57 F/g) at 0.01 www.selleckchem.com/CDK.html Hz at 0.22 V. Among the copolymer salts, copolymer prepared with sulfuric acid showed higher capacitance (66 F/g). (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 115: 1695-1701, 2010″
“Background Infantile hemangioma (IH) clearance may be slow or incomplete
in response to pulsed dye laser (PDL) or propranolol alone. Objectives To evaluate whether IH treated with PDL and propranolol displayed more rapid and complete clearance than IH treated with propranolol alone. Materials and Methods Retrospective review of facial-segmental IH treated with propranolol and PDL and controls treated with propranolol was conducted. Blinded physicians used patient photographs to select clearance level and the earliest date of near-complete clearance. Days of propranolol, PDL sessions, and propranolol dose, each until date of near-complete clearance; total days of propranolol; and total propranolol dose were recorded. Results Infantile hemangiomas treated concurrently with propranolol and PDL achieved complete clearance (6/12) more often than IH treated with propranolol followed by PDL (2/5) or IH treated with propranolol alone (1/8; difference in clearance scores p=.01) and achieved near-complete clearance after fewer days of propranolol (mean 92days for concurrent propranolol and PDL vs 288days for propranolol; p<.001). Cumulative propranolol dose until near-complete clearance was lowest in the concurrent propranolol and PDL group (149.16 vs 401.25mg/kg for propranolol; p<.
A line homozygous for the KP allele of Dro1 (Dro1-KP) and IR64 did not differ in root dry weight in the shallow soil layers (0-25 cm), but root dry weight of Dro1-KP in deep soil layers (25-50 cm) was significantly greater than that of IR64, suggesting that Dro1 plays a crucial role in increased deep rooting under upland field conditions.”
W, Lippert A, Davies M, Arslan B, Kumer S, Waldman D, Turba U, Schmitt T, Matsumoto A, Angle J. Prevalence, presentation, and endovascular management of hemodynamically or clinically significant arterio-portal fistulae in living and cadaveric donor liver transplant recipients. Abstract: Purpose: To compare the prevalence (cadaveric vs. living donor transplants), clinical features, and the effectiveness of endovascular management of significant arterio-portal fistulae (APF) in liver transplant AZD5582 ic50 recipients. Methods: A retrospective audit of liver transplant recipients in two institutions was performed (19962009). Significant APF were included and were defined as symptomatic Akt inhibitor and/or
hemodynamically significant (causing graft dysfunction and/or having abnormal Doppler findings in the portal vein). Patients with significant APF were evaluated for presenting symptoms, imaging features, size/branch order portal vein involvement, and effectiveness of the endovascular management (coil embolization). Results: Four significant eFT-508 concentration APF were found in 1992 (0.2%) liver transplants. Two were symptomatic and two were asymptomatic but were hemodynamically significant with liver function test abnormalities. All four APF were found in cadaveric donor graft recipients (0.23%, N = 4/1753) and none in 239 living donor graft recipients. However,
there was no statistical difference between cadaveric and living donor graft recipients (p = 1.0, odds ratio = 1.23). Coil embolization was technically and clinically successful in all 4 without complications and causing normalization of the abnormal Doppler findings. Conclusion: Significant APF are a rare diagnosis (0.2% of transplants). Coil embolization is a safe and effective treatment option for APF in transplants.”
“Carvedilol, a widely prescribed cardiovascular drug for hypertension and congestive heart failure, exhibits low and variable bioavailability owing to poor absorption and extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism. The current research work, therefore, entails formulation development of liquid self-nano-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) to enhance the bioavailability of carvedilol by facilitating its transport via lymphatic circulation. The formulation constituents, i.e. lipids, surfactants, and co-surfactants, were selected on the basis of solubility studies. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed to embark upon the selection of blend of lipidic (i.e. Capmul PG8) and hydrophilic components (i.e.
Method: Analyses used data from World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys, a series of parallel community epidemiological surveys using the same instruments and field procedures carried out in 17 countries throughout the world.
Initiation of “”gateway”" substances (i.e. alcohol, tobacco and cannabis) was differentially associated with subsequent onset of other illicit drug use based on background prevalence of gateway substance use. Cross-country differences in substance use prevalence also corresponded to differences in the likelihood of individuals reporting a non-normative sequence of substance initiation.
Conclusion: These results suggest the “”gateway”" pattern at least partially reflects unmeasured common causes rather than causal effects of specific drugs on subsequent use of others. This implies that successful efforts to prevent use of specific “”gateway”" LY2835219 cell line drugs may not in themselves lead to major reductions in the use of later drugs. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“P>Previously, we reported guanylate-binding protein 2 (GBP2) and interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) elevated in the rat peripheral blood during acute cellular rejection (ACR), which are identified from transcriptome analysis
of liver graft, as leukocyte-related gene in liver. In this study, we investigated whether these two genes could differentially diagnose ACR from other types of liver dysfunction (LD) clinically. The mRNAs from leukocytes of 19 patients with ACR and 27 with LD, as well as from liver biopsies of 12 patients with ACR and 12 with LD, were analysed selleck products by real-time PCR for GBP2 and IRF1 expression. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves. Guanylate-binding protein 2 (GBP2) and interferon click here regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) gene expression levels in ACR samples were higher than
that in controls, and GBP2 expression in blood was higher than that in LD (26.4 +/- 3.1 and 15.6 +/- 1.9, P = 0.0203). Multivariate analysis showed that the ratio GBP2/glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was independent of ACR-related factors (OR = 0.911, P = 0.035). GBP2 expression levels in ACR were also higher than that in liver transplantation patients with hepatitis C or no LD. Using a cut-off value of 20, the sensitivity and specificity of GBP2/GAPDH based on ROC curve analysis were 63% and 85% respectively. GBP2 in the patients with LD may be useful for diagnosis of ACR.”
“Aim of the study is to evaluate the antiinflammatory effects of ethanolic extract of the marine brown alga Sargassum sagamianum collected from Yeonhwari coast of Korea. Ethanolic extract of S. sagamianum (SA-E extract) inhibited expression of nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines (IL-6, IL-1 beta, and TNF-alpha) as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.
The chronic accumulation of edema in one or both lower extremities often indicates venous insufficiency, especially in the presence of dependent edema and hemosiderin deposition. Skin care is crucial in preventing skin breakdown and venous ulcers. Eczematous (stasis) dermatitis buy VX-770 can be managed with emollients and topical steroid creams. Patients who have had deep venous thrombosis should wear compression stockings to prevent postthrombotic syndrome. If clinical suspicion for deep venous thrombosis remains high after negative results are noted on duplex ultrasonography, further investigation may include magnetic resonance venography to rule
out pelvic or thigh proximal venous thrombosis or compression. Obstructive sleep apnea may cause bilateral leg edema even in the absence of pulmonary hypertension. Brawny, nonpitting skin with edema characterizes lymphedem. a, which can present in one or both lower extremities. Possible
secondary causes of lymphedema include tumor, trauma, previous pelvic BI 6727 datasheet surgery, inguinal lymphadenectomy, and previous radiation therapy. Use of pneumatic compression devices or compression stockings may be helpful in these cases. (Am Fam Physician. 2013;88(2):102-110. Copyright (C) 2013 American Academy of Family Physicians.)”
“Objectives: To collect reasons for selecting the methods for meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy from authors of systematic reviews and improve guidance on recommended methods.
Study Design and Setting: Online survey in authors of recently published meta-analyses see more of diagnostic accuracy.
Results: We identified 100 eligible reviews, of which 40 had used more advanced methods of meta-analysis (hierarchical random-effects approach), 52 more traditional methods (summary receiver operating characteristic curve based on linear regression or a univariate approach), and 8 combined both. Fifty-nine authors responded to the survey; 29 (49%) authors had used advanced
methods, 25 (42%) authors traditional methods, and 5 (9%) authors combined traditional and advanced methods. Most authors who had used advanced methods reported to do so because they believed that these methods are currently recommended (n = 27; 93%). Most authors who had used traditional methods also reported to do so because they believed that these methods are currently recommended (11 = 18; 75%) or easy to understand (n = 18; 75%).
Conclusion: Although more advanced methods for meta-analysis are recommended by The Cochrane Collaboration, both authors using these methods and those using more traditional methods responded that the methods they used were currently recommended. Clearer and more widespread dissemination of guidelines on recommended methods for meta-analysis of test accuracy data is needed. (c) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Clinical vigilance and routine use of a validated screening tool can improve detection and quality of care. As is increasingly the case for the general population, persons with epilepsy are Vorinostat research buy often interested in exploring alternative therapies for chronic conditions, including depression. Unfortunately, the benefit of complementary and alternative therapies for depression currently is largely unproven for persons with a seizure history, although an early study of exercise for mild depression has shown some benefit. Concerns about drug interactions, side effects, and expense may be barriers to the prescription of antidepressant medications for people requiring chronic antiepileptic
drug (AED) therapy. For this reason, use of an AED with mood-stabilizing properties has appeal and may be appropriate for selected individuals with mild depressive symptoms. Undue fear of lowering seizure threshold should not preclude the prescription of an antidepressant medication, as the perceived risks are often overestimated and rarely outweigh the risk of leaving depression untreated. At present, the best evidence for efficacy and safety support the use of citalopram, sertraline, or mirtazapine as initial pharmacotherapy, whereas
bupropion should be avoided. Start low, go slow, and use the lowest effective dose. Cognitive behavioral therapy is a valuable adjunct to antidepressant therapy in this population. For people with refractory partial epilepsy and refractory depression, click here vagus nerve stimulation has some appeal, in that it may be beneficial for both conditions, but the efficacy of vagus nerve stimulation in improving mood in patients with epilepsy remains unclear.”
“Salinity as well as drought are increasing problems in agriculture. Durum wheat (Triticum PARP inhibitor review turgidum L. ssp. durum Desf.) is relatively salt sensitive compared with bread wheat (Triticum
aestivum L.), and yields poorly on saline soil. Field studies indicate that roots of durum wheat do not proliferate as extensively as bread wheat in saline soil. In order to look for genetic diversity in root growth within durum wheat, a screening method was developed to identify genetic variation in rates of root growth in a saline solution gradient similar to that found in many saline fields. Seedlings were grown in rolls of germination paper in plastic tubes 37 cm tall, with a gradient of salt concentration increasing towards the bottom of the tubes which contained from 50-200 mM NaCl with complete nutrients. Seedlings were grown in the light to the two leaf stage, and transpiration and evaporation were minimized so that the salinity gradient was maintained. An NaCl concentration of 150 mM at the bottom was found suitable to identify genetic variation. This corresponds to a level of salinity in the field that reduces shoot growth by 50% or more.