Urinary dipstick tests for the presence of protein, glucose, Hb and leucocyte esterase as markers of kidney disease or inflammation were negative for all children in both groups. eGFR as calculated with Cys C based equations (Cys C-eGFR and C-B-eGFR) was significantly lower in RFU than LC children. However, no significant difference was seen in eGFR when using Cr based equations (CCr or the Schwarz-eGFR) (Table 3). Mineral handling calculations indicated that TmP:GFR was significantly lower in RFU than LC children and that uP excretion over a 24 h period was
significantly higher in RFU than LC children. This increase was also reflected in a higher CP over a 24 h period. uCa excretion excretion over 24 h and CCa were lower in RFU than
LC children ( Table 3). Plasma FGF23 concentration was not correlated with plasma P and Ponatinib order 1,25(OH)2D or TmP:GFR in either the RFU or LC children. However, Hb concentration was inversely correlated with FGF23 concentration in RFU children (Fig. 2). There was no significant difference in Hb concentration between RFU and LC children (Table 2) but there was a significant Hb × group interaction (p = 0.003), indicating a difference www.selleckchem.com/products/MLN8237.html in the slope in the relationship between Hb and FGF23 between the two groups. The median age of the 19 (54%) RFU children with and the 16 (46%) without lasting leg deformities was 8.4 (IQR 2.7) and 8.6 (IQR 2.7) respectively. There was no significant difference in age, standing height, sitting height or weight between RFU children with or without lasting limb deformities. However, those
with lasting leg deformities tended to be male (F/M = 4/15) compared to those without lasting leg deformities (F/M = 8/8) (χ2 = 3.23, p = 0.04). There was no difference in dietary profile between RFU children with and without lasting limb deformities. Those with leg deformities had significantly higher 1,25(OH)2D and significantly lower Cys C-eGFR than those whose deformities had recovered (Table 4). There was no significant difference in Hb concentration (Table 4) or in the relationship between Hb and FGF23 in RFU ifoxetine children with or without leg deformities (data not shown). The Republic of The Gambia (latitude 13°N) in West Africa has a hot and dry tropical climate with a single wet season from June to October. There is abundant UVB-containing sunshine throughout the year and a lifestyle that does not restrict sunshine exposure but, despite the low prevalence of vitamin D deficiency within the population, there are cases of rickets . The original clinical case series of Gambian children with bone deformities consistent with rickets indicated that 70% of the patients had elevated FGF23 concentrations .