We also classified change using two complementary metrics: a deta

We also classified change using two complementary metrics: a detailed continuous measure of time spent walking or cycling; and a categorical measure based on the usual mode of travel, that might more accurately reflect habitual travel behaviour. Our findings may not be generalisable to other contexts where cycling Androgen Receptor Antagonist libraries is less prevalent.

Only 56% of participants provided data at follow-up, and although travel mode was not associated with dropout, the attrition of the cohort limits the generalisability of our observations. Our sample also contained a higher proportion of participants educated to degree level and a smaller proportion of obese adults than the population of Cambridgeshire (Office of National Statistics, 2011). While our measure of time spent walking and cycling improves on many instruments used previously (Ogilvie et al., 2004), we did not collect information

on the time spent walking or cycling on each day. We also lacked information on measures of socio-economic status or workplace facilities for cyclists, which may influence commuting behaviour. Relatively few participants had changed their usual travel mode(s), which may have limited our power to detect associations. Further investigation in larger samples with data collected at multiple time points over a longer time period would be warranted. In this longitudinal study, we found a lack of empirical support for many of the http://www.selleckchem.com/products/mi-773-sar405838.html putative predictors of travel behaviour change suggested by findings from cross-sectional studies. Only a few were found to be important; based on these findings, interventions to restrict workplace parking and provide convenient routes for cycling, convenient public transport and pleasant routes for walking to work appear to hold promise. Their effects on travel behaviour are, however, largely unknown and further studies are required to establish

these. The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest. The Commuting and Health in Cambridge study was developed by David Ogilvie, Simon Griffin, Andy Jones and Roger Mackett and initially funded under the auspices of the Centre for Diet and Activity Research (CEDAR), a UKCRC Public Health Research Centre of Excellence. Funding from the British others Heart Foundation, Economic and Social Research Council, Medical Research Council, National Institute for Health Research and the Wellcome Trust, under the auspices of the UK Clinical Research Collaboration, is gratefully acknowledged. The study is now funded by the National Institute for Health Research Public Health Research programme (project number 09/3001/06: see http://www.phr.nihr.ac.uk/funded_projects). David Ogilvie and Simon Griffin are supported by the Medical Research Council [Unit Programme number MC_UP_1001/1]. Jenna Panter is now supported by an NIHR post-doctoral fellowship.

Strain-Counterstrain is a manual therapy intervention involving p

Strain-Counterstrain is a manual therapy intervention involving passive positioning of the body or limbs. It has been proposed as a treatment for musculoskeletal pain and dysfunction (Jones et al 1995). When used to treat acute low back pain, this intervention can be considered as a form of spinal manipulative therapy because the pelvis, sacrum,

and lower limbs are used to position the lumbar and selleck kinase inhibitor sacral regions passively in degrees of flexion, extension, lateral flexion, and rotation. The rationale for Strain-Counterstrain treatment is unclear. A proprioceptive model (Korr, 1975), which has not been experimentally tested, provides the hypothetical basis for the Strain-Counterstrain assessment and treatment using digitally tender points (Jones et al 1995, Kusunose, 1993). To our knowledge, there is no experimental evidence to support the use of Strain-Counterstrain for the treatment of acute low back pain, although reductions in pain and disability following Strain-Counterstrain treatment for low back pain have been

reported in case studies (Lewis and Flynn, 2001). This randomised trial was intended to investigate the effect of Strain-Counterstrain treatment for acute low back pain in a clinical setting. The research questions for this study were: 1. Is a combination of Selleckchem Nutlin-3a Strain-Counterstrain and exercise more

effective than exercise alone in reducing levels of pain, disability, and dysfunction in participants with acute low back pain after 2 weeks? A single-centre, randomised controlled trial was Thalidomide conducted at the physiotherapy outpatient department of a rural public hospital in Australia. Participants were referred by public and private medical practitioners for treatment of acute low back pain or were recruited through posted notices and advertisement in local papers. Randomisation was achieved by having the participant select one of 100 sealed opaque envelopes, each containing a group allocation, which had been prepared and shuffled by an independent investigator. The experimental group received a combination of Strain- Counterstrain and exercise, while the control group received only the exercises. The interventions were provided at four visits occurring over two weeks. Measurements were recorded at baseline, at 2 weeks (immediately after the intervention), at 6 weeks, and at 28 weeks. The 28- week follow-up was expected to capture the majority of participants who would develop persistent low back pain or recurrence of low back pain within 12 months (Philips and Grant, 1991, Von Korff and Saunders, 1996).

Partek Genomics Suite (Partek Inc , St Louis, MI) was used for t

Partek Genomics Suite (Partek Inc., St. Louis, MI) was used for the analysis of the normalized data. The differential expression level of a subset of genes selected from highly expressed genes by microarray was confirmed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis. check details Isolated RNA was reverse transcribed and the resulting cDNA was then amplified using SYBR green and specific primers according to the manufacturer’s instructions (Applied Biosystems, Carlsbad, CA). All samples

were run in triplicate and the expression of each gene was standardized using the housekeeping gene glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as a reference. Amplification reactions were performed using a 9700H real-time PCR instrument (Applied Biosystems, Carlsbad, CA). The conditions for the reactions were: 95 °C, 10 min; 95 °C, 15 s; 60 °C, 60 s for 40 cycles. The related genes expression was determined using 2−△△ct method. Data are expressed as mean ± SE. A one-way ANOVA determined whether the results had statistical significance. In some cases, a Student’s t-test was used for comparing the two groups. TNF-alpha inhibitor A P-value set at 0.05 was used to determine significant differences. All analyses were performed using SPSS 14.0 (IBM Corporation, Somers, NY). Xenograft tumor model mice implanted with HCT-116 human

colorectal carcinoma cells were administrated with 25 and 50 mg/kg PPD. After 30 days of treatment, 25 and 50 mg/kg PPD inhibited tumor growth approximately by 35% and 50%, respectively ( Fig. 2:

A and B; P < 0.01 compared to control, P < 0.05, compared to 25 mg/kg group). With the assistance of veterinary staff in the animal care facility mafosfamide in our university, no obvious clinical signs of adverse events were observed during the PPD treatment. These daily observations included: motor activity (locomotion, catalepsy), respiration (dyspnea), skin (edema, erythema), and reflexes (light) (17). Growth inhibitory effects of PPD on SW-480, HT-29, and HCT-116 cancer cells at various PPD concentrations (5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 μM) were evaluated at 24, 48 or 72 h. The MTS assay results are shown in Fig. 3A, B and C. The growth of the treated cells decreased significantly in a concentration-dependent manner. We also observed that, PPD at 20 μM, HCT-116 cells were significantly more sensitive to the treatment than the other two cells, suggesting that the status of p53 could account for this difference. A normal rat small intestine epithelial cell line, IEC-6, was used to evaluate the effects of PPD. Compared with the control (100%), the cell viabilities of PPD on IEC-6 cells in 10, 20, 30 and 40 μM for 48 h were 100.8 ± 5.0%, 103.5 ± 4.8%, 101.4 ± 7.3%, and 86.3 ± 6.6%, respectively. In contrast, cell growth was almost totally inhibited in all the three colorectal cancer cell lines when treated with PPD at 30 μM (Fig. 3). HCT-116 and SW-480 cells were treated with different PPD concentrations (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 μM) for 72 h.

9 In addition, Horowitz et al assessed 383 patients with no signi

9 In addition, Horowitz et al assessed 383 patients with no significant risk factor associated with hemorrhage to evaluate the clinical relevance of routine hemoglobin testing following an elective cesarean section. Their result showed

that the Hb concentration pre and post operation were 12.24 ± 1.09 and 10.87 ± 1.2 g/dl, respectively. They found no statistically significant difference among the patients according to indication and concluded that routine postoperative Hb measurement after an uncomplicated cesarean section in asymptomatic low-risk women is not necessary and should be eliminated.10 In another study, the evaluation of 421 cases with unplanned and uneventful low-risk women with no postoperative signs or symptoms for anemia by Api et al revealed selleck chemicals that the mean pre and postoperative Hb levels were 11.7 ± 1.99 g/dl and 11.24 ± 1.99 g/dl, respectively (P < 0.001). Their results showed that there was a decrease selleck inhibitor in Hb concentrations in 72% of the patients, whereas 24.5% experienced an increase and 3.5% showed no change, postoperatively. They suggest that routine Hb testing following uneventful, unplanned cesarean section neither changes postoperative management nor determines the patients requiring blood transfusion. 6 In the present study, we tried to find whether, is it necessary to carry out

pre operation blood typing and screening testing and post cesarean section Hb testing for low-risk women who underwent unplanned and uneventful operation. In our study, the mean preoperative hemoglobin was 12.4 ± 0.95 g/dl, whereas it was 11.8 ± 1.08 g/dl, postoperatively. Moreover, in our study, just two cases with parity over 4, showed Hb drop between 20 and 30% that could be due to previous injury of uterine, but none of them need to blood transfusion. Also, there was no relationship between maternal age, number of gestation, previous delivery, abortion and type of blood group with Hb decline

in our study. Performing blood typing and screening test before operation and Hb testing post operation in low-risk women who undergo unplanned new and uneventful cesarean section is unnecessary and can be eliminated. All authors have none to declare. “
“La dysfonction des cordes vocales (DCV), adduction inappropriée des cordes vocales classiquement pendant l’inspiration, est diagnostiquée à l’aide d’une laryngoscopie sus-glottique. Le diagnostic de DCV est difficile et mal codifié. “
“Selon le rapport de l’Organisation mondiale de la santé sur les facteurs de risque cardiovasculaire, l’hypertension artérielle (HTA) est responsable de 18 % des décès dans les pays riches et de 45 % des décès cardiovasculaires [1] et génère de lourds handicaps liés aux accidents vasculaires cérébraux (AVC), à la démence, à l’insuffisance cardiaque et à l’insuffisance rénale chronique. En 2008, les décès cardiovasculaires représentaient, en France, 30 % de l’ensemble des décès [2].

Previous studies had indicated that the majority of adverse event

Previous studies had indicated that the majority of adverse events observed were mild to moderate and transient in nature [85] and [86]. The phase III clinical trials in combination with many years Palbociclib solubility dmso of observation will finally

reveal whether this vaccine can reduce the burden of severe dengue infections without adverse effects such as enhancement of disease. Important new insights into the mechanisms of immune-mediated protection – especially of virus neutralization by antibodies – have been obtained through the elucidation of molecular details of the major flavivirus antigens and their interactions with the immune system [35]. At the same time, however, flaviviruses provide excellent examples of how LY2109761 in vitro successful conventional vaccines can be that have been developed in the absence and/or without the need of such detailed information. This is certified by the effectiveness of the traditional

live vaccines against YF and JE as well as the whole inactivated virus vaccines against JE and TBE. Despite these successes, a vaccine against dengue – the most abundant flavivirus infection with the highest disease impact worldwide – is still not available. The application of new technologies and the advancement of a recombinant candidate live vaccine to phase III clinical trials raise hope that an efficient means of immunoprophylaxis against dengue will indeed become available in the foreseeable future. “
“Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death from Calpain cancer among males in most western countries, and is estimated to result in over 33,000 deaths in the United States in 2011 [1]. The choice of initial therapy for prostate cancer will, in part, be dependent on patient age, cancer growth rate, and other prognostic factors. In patients with localized cancer, and in whom active surveillance is not an option,

surgery or radiation therapy can cure the majority of these patients; however, up to 30% of patients will experience disease recurrence, which is often identified by a progressive rise in serum prostate specific antigen (PSA). Despite initial control of disease recurrence with hormone therapy (androgen-deprivation therapy), the disease inevitably progresses to metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Patients with mCRPC have traditionally been treated with chemotherapeutic agents (docetaxel) or secondary hormone therapy and, eventually, palliative care. The concept of utilizing tumor-specific immune-based therapies to promote an adaptive anti-tumor response has been suggested as a potentially less toxic and effective treatment option in these patients. While a variety of approaches have led to immune responses to tumor antigens, demonstration of survival benefit has remained elusive until recently.


The CAMPRAL® AC220 enteric coated tablets containing 333 mg Acamprosate per tablet, were obtained from Forest pharmaceuticals, INC, USA. The 1200 Series HPLC system (Agilent Technologies, Waldbronn, Germany), Mass spectrometry API 4200 triple quadrupole instrument (ABI-SCIEX, Toronto, Canada) and data processing was performed on Analyst 1.5.1 software package (SCIEX). The mass spectrometer was operated in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Sample introduction and ionization were electrospray

ionization in the negative ion mode. Sources dependent parameters optimized were as follows: nebulizer gas flow: 20 psi; Heatergas flow 40 psi; curtain gas flow: 8 psi; ion spray voltage (ISV): 5500 V; temperature (TEM): 650 °C. The compound dependent parameters such as the declustering potential (DP), focusing potential (FP), entrance potential (EP), collision energy (CE), cell exit potential Ibrutinib cell line (CXP) were optimized during tuning as 55, 30, 10, 18, 12 eV for Acamprosate and Acamprosate D12, respectively. The collision activated dissociation (CAD) gas was set at 5 psi using nitrogen gas. Quadrupole 1 and quadrupole 3 were both maintained at a unit resolution and dwell time was set at 600 ms for Acamprosate and Acamprosate D12. The mass transitions were selected as m/z 180.0 → 79.9 for Acamprosate and m/z 186.1→ 79.9 for

Acamprosate D12. The parent and product ion spectra for Acamprosate and Acamprosate D12 are represented in Figs. 2a and b, 3a and b respectively. The data acquisition was ascertained by Analyst 1.5.4software. Waters Atlantis, HILIC, 50 × 2.1 mm, 3 μm, was selected as the analytical column connected with Guard column Waters Atlantis, HILIC, 10 × 2.1 mm, 3 μm. Column temperature was set at 40 °C. Mobile phase composition was 10 mM Ammonium formate pH 3.5: Acetonitrile (10:90 v/v). Source flow rate 250 μL/min without split. Injection volume of 10 μL. Acamprosate and Acamprosate D12 were eluted at 2.1 ± 0.2 min, with a total run time of 3.0 min for each sample. Acamprosate and Acamprosate D12 standard stock solutions 100 μg/mL each were prepared by dissolving the appropriate standard in methanol. From the Acamprosate

stock solution calibration and quality control standards were prepared by using screened human blank plasma as diluent. Calibration standards were prepared at concentration levels of 1.00, others 2.00, 5.00, 25.00, 50.00, 100.00, 150.00, 200.00 and 250.00 ng/mL. Quality control standards were prepared at concentration levels of 1.00, 3.00, 125.00 and 175.00 ng/mL for Acamprosate. Internal standard spiking solution at 50 ng/mL concentration was prepared by using 50% methanol solution from Acamprosate D12 standard stock solution. Calibration and quality control standards were prepared from two separate stock solutions of Acamprosate and stored at −30 °C. Internal standard spiking solution was stored in refrigerator conditions at 2–8 °C until analysis.

Table 3 summarizes the responses received to both the vaccinator

Table 3 summarizes the responses received to both the vaccinator and the supervisor questionnaires. In Kangaré, three unfinished vials of OPV had to be disposed of during the CP-673451 CC days, which used ice packs and traditional cold chain procedures. This was due to the humidity generated by the ice packs inside the vaccine carrier, which caused the labels to get wet

and subsequently detach from the vials, rendering them unreadable and therefore the vials unusable. Two of these vials were full. Maintaining the standard cold chain during vaccination campaigns is a challenge, especially in areas where electricity, equipment and resources are scarce. This study provides evidence that flexible cold chain management procedures as outlined in the WHO document

on flexible cold chain management are possible to implement [6]. We found that OPV kept outside of the cold chain during NID activities remained sufficiently potent for use as per its VVM status. No VVM reached the endpoint despite exposure to external temperatures between 25 and 40 °C during vaccination activities that lasted nearly seven hours on average. There was no OPV wastage resulting from heat exposure. The OCC procedure was easily understood and feasible for all vaccination teams that participated in the NID. This approach provides a possible practice for overcoming the challenges of delivering vaccines in situations where the continuity of the cold chain cannot be assured. Selleckchem PI3K Inhibitor Library Our study was conducted in a rural context in a country with limited resources and high temperatures. In Mali, it is almost impossible Rutecarpine to continuously maintain the cold chain in all settings. This is made even more difficult during national immunization campaigns, which strain

the country’s already overloaded transportation systems and storage capacities. Some additional factors make maintaining the cold chain problematic, notably the access to an infrastructure capable of freezing ice packs, as well as the need to carry these ice packs along with the OPV to maintain the recommended 2–8 °C temperature range. This is especially true during immunization activities outside the health care posts where it results in additional weight to be carried during the outreach vaccination activities. Moreover, the moisture generated by the ice packs inside the vaccine carriers soaks the OPV labels. After a few hours, the labels often either peel off and/or become destroyed, and the vial details as well as the VVM become unreadable. If a vial has not yet been opened or finished at this point, it must be disposed of. Vaccine wastage was higher on days with CC procedures, whereas on OCC days it was zero. The temperature data collected by the LogTag® recorders will inform programmatic guidance for controlled temperature chains.

8 and 16 0 kDa presumably represent VP11–145 fragments since they

8 and 16.0 kDa presumably represent VP11–145 fragments since they closely match the predicted mass and differ by about the same mass (0.2 kDa) as both VP1 peaks. The peak at 18.8 kDa closest matches fragments VP21–167. This complete cleavage Antidiabetic Compound Library order after VP1 residue 145 and partial cleavage after VP2 residue 167 is further confirmed by the

presence of peaks at 34.7 and 40.4 kDa that can be explained by the presence of a disulfide bond between part of the VP1 and VP2 molecules. The peaks at 5239 and 6193 Da match closely with fragments VP1155–200 and VP1146–200, respectively. Furthermore, this interpretation is consistent with the previously observed cleavage after VP1 residue 145 and suggests partial cleavage after VP1 residue 154. Two further peaks at 5267 and 6221 Da differ by 28 Da from these two peaks, suggesting that they represent variants of these fragments. Although the peaks of low height at 5447 and 6395 Da match closest to fragments VP1158–204 (5460 Da) and VP1110–169 (6392 Da), respectively, this interpretation is not consistent with VP1 cleavages occurring after residues 145 and 200. Since these mTOR inhibitor peaks differ by about the same mass (208 and 202 Da, respectively) from the peaks at 5239 and 6193 Da and have the same relative height as these peaks, it is more likely that

they represent another variant of these fragments. The closest matching fragments of the peaks at 5039 and 5993 Da (see Table 1) are not consistent with cleavages occurring after VP1 residues 145 and 154. As a result the identity of these peaks is uncertain. We next analysed the proteolytic stability of FMDV O1 Manisa antigen by SELDI-TOF-MS in an accelerated stability study by incubation of the antigen at 35 °C for 2 weeks. The height of the VP1 peaks gradually decreased during this

2-week Fossariinae incubation period whereas the height of the VP2 peak remained constant (Fig. 4a–d). Two peaks of low height at about 22.2 and 22.4 kDa appear upon prolonged incubation at 35 °C (Fig. 4a–d), which could represent VP1 degradation products. Further degradation products were not observed. Incubation of the antigen at 4 °C for 2 weeks did not reveal such VP1 degradation (cf. Fig. 4a and e). We next analysed FMDV O1 Manisa antigen after addition of the adjuvant, a double oil emulsion, by SELDI-TOF-MS using immunocapture with the VP1 specific VHH M8. The relative height of the VP4 peak as compared to the VP2 or VP1–VP2 dimer peak did not vary before or after emulsification (cf. Fig. 5a and b). The ratio between the VP4 and VP2 peak height is 70/7.9 (8.9) before emulsification and 30/3.6 (8.4) after emulsification. This indicates that equal amounts of VP4 remained associated with FMDV virions after emulsification. The heights of the spectral peaks representing VP1, VP2, VP4 and VP1–VP2 dimers in DOE vaccine (Fig. 5b) were somewhat reduced as compared to the profiles obtained with the antigen before emulsification (Fig. 5a).

BF-2 cells (from bluegill fry, Lepomis macrochirus; ATCC CCL-91)

BF-2 cells (from bluegill fry, Lepomis macrochirus; ATCC CCL-91) were used for antibody neutralizing tests. Both cell lines were grown in MEM (Gibco) culture medium supplemented with penicillin (100 IU ml−1), streptomycin (100 μg ml−1) and 10% FCS at 20 °C. For the construction of the check details IPNV DNA vaccine (pIPNV-PP), the polyprotein gene was amplified by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

from a cDNA sample obtained from the spleen of a trout infected with IPNV Sp strain using specific primers (Table 1), containing both the start and stop codons. The PCR product was cloned into the expression vector pcDNA3.1/V5-His-TOPO according to manufacturer’s instructions (Invitrogen) and used to transform One Shot TOP10 Escherichia coli cells (Invitrogen). A clone containing the pIPNV-PP was identified by PCR screening, and the proper orientation was verified by sequencing. A religated empty pcDNA3.1/V5-His-TOPO plasmid (pcDNA3.1) was used as a negative control. The pMCV1.4-G plasmid used as a VHSV DNA vaccine consisted of the gene encoding the glycoprotein

G of VHSV Selleckchem BLZ945 under the control of the long cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter, previously described [22]. The effectiveness of this VHSV vaccine has been previously demonstrated [23] and [24]. The empty vector (pMCV1.4) was used as a control. To ensure that cloned polyprotein gene could express protein in vitro, the pIPNV-PP plasmid was used as template in the transcend non-radioactive transcription/translation quick coupled system (Promega), which allows a biotinylated detection of proteins synthesized in vitro. The viral protein(s) expressed were separated on a SDS-polyacrylamide Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase gel electrophoresis, transferred to nitrocellulose membranes and the biotinylated proteins visualized by binding streptavidin–horsedish peroxidase, followed by colorimetric detection. Confluent cultures of actively growing EPC cells were trypsined and dispensed into 24-well plates

at a concentration of 6 × 105 cells ml−1. After 24 h of incubation at 28 °C, cells were transfected by the addition of 3 μl of Fugene 6 (Roche) complexed with either 0.5 μg of pIPNV-PP or the empty plasmid (control). After a further 72 h of incubation at 28 °C, cells were trypsined and processed for RNA isolation or electron microscopy. Expression of the plasmid by the EPC cells was confirmed by VP2 gene expression by semi-quantitative PCR whilst induction of the EPC-antiviral Mx gene was evaluated by real-time PCR (see below). For electron microscopy, cells were fixed in 1% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer (pH 7.2) for 2 h at 4 °C, then postfixed in 1% osmium tetroxide in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer (pH 7.2) for 1 h at 4 °C and embedded in Epon. Ultrathin sections were obtained with a Reichert-Jung ultramicrotome, contrasted with uranyl acetate and lead citrate and examined with a Zeiss EM 10C electron microscope.

, 2004 and Suris et al , 2010) and reduce subjective and physiolo

, 2004 and Suris et al., 2010) and reduce subjective and physiological measures of fear in phobic patients who were given glucocorticoids prior to exposure therapy (Soravia et al., 2006 and de Quervain

et al., 2011). Consistent with the broader role in memory enhancement, glucocorticoid administration prior to safety learning may later reduce anxiety and fear responses by bolstering initial extinction learning and consolidation within the amygdala and vmPFC. The precise mechanism underlying the immediate reduction of fear expression is less clear, but is thought to be related to glucocorticoids MDV3100 chemical structure impairing the retrieval of previously acquired aversive associations (de Quervain and Margraf, 2008). Interestingly, the therapeutic effects of glucocorticoids in these reports provided therapeutic benefits to anxiety patients only, indicating that glucorticoids may be most effective in patients suffering from stress-related buy 3-MA psychopathology. This is consistent with clinical research work showing that the hypersensitivity of glucocorticoids in PTSD

patients leads to reductions in basal cortisol levels (Yehuda, 2009). Therefore, anxiety populations may benefit from exogenous glucocorticoid administration because it promotes optimal glucocorticoid levels that lead to stronger inhibition of fear responses and more robust consolidation of safety learning.

When an aversive Idoxuridine outcome is imminent, cognitive strategies can be used to assert control over affective responses. These techniques—referred to as cognitive emotion regulation—are unique to humans and denote any regulatory strategy used intentionally to generate a more adaptive emotional response ( Gross, 1998 and Gross and Thompson, 2007). They include shifting attention away from aversive aspects of a stimulus, changing the meaning of a stimulus (i.e., reappraisal), or altering the expression of an emotional response (for reviews, see Gross and Thompson, 2007 and Gross, 2013). Recruiting cognitive strategies to deliberately change the way a stimulus is evaluated has been shown to effectively reduce the subjective ( Gross, 1998 and Shurick et al., 2012), physiological ( Gross and Thompson, 2007, Delgado et al., 2008 and Shurick et al., 2012) and neural components ( Ochsner et al., 2012, Hartley and Phelps, 2009 and Schiller and Delgado, 2010) of emotion. In humans, using cognitive control to change emotional responses is commonly used due it its unique capacity to be deployed at will in a variety of circumstances.