The bacterial suspension was adjusted to the desired concentration (109 cell/day/mouse) for later selleck chemical administration through the oral and nasal routes. Two different serotypes of S. pneumoniae, kindly provided by Dr M. Regueira from the Laboratory of Clinical Bacteriology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Argentina, were used. Freshly grown colonies of S. pneumoniae strains, serotypes 3 and 14, were suspended in Todd Hewitt broth (THB) and incubated at 37°C until the log phase was reached . Then, the cell concentration of the pathogen
was adjusted to the dose used in the challenge assays (106 cells/mouse). Three-week-old (young) Swiss Pictilisib datasheet albino mice were obtained from the closed colony at CERELA. Animals were housed in plastic cages and environmental conditions were kept constant, in agreement with the standards for animal housing. Each parameter studied was carried out in five to six mice for each time-point. The Ethical Committee for Animal Care at CERELA approved experimental protocols. Mice were immunized nasally with recombinant L. lactis PppA (LL), induced previously with nisin, at a dose of 108 cells/day/mouse, on days 0, 14 and 28, following an immunization protocol assessed previously by our team . The inoculum was instilled slowly into the nostril of each
mouse in a 25 µl volume. The inactivated bacterium (D-LL) was administered at the same concentration and using a procedure similar to that used for LL. The administration of the probiotic strain was carried out during the 2 days prior to each immunization with LL or D-LL. The animals treated
orally with the probiotic received 109 cell/day/mouse of L. casei (Lc) in the drinking water. This dose was selected on the basis of our previous studies, in which we demonstrated Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase that Lc induced a significant increase in the innate and acquired immune defence mechanisms of the host in a pneumococcal infection model in adult mice . Nasal administration of the probiotic strains was carried out at the same concentration as oral administration (109 cells/day/mouse) in a final volume of 25 µl and associated only with D-LL. The administration of L. casei in association with the live vaccine through the nasal route was not carried out, because we considered that the application of two live bacteria by this route would imply too high a microbial load in the upper airways. In addition, even if it was beneficial in our model, it would not be of practical or safe application for transference to humans, which is the aim of our research. Young non-immunized mice that received PBS were used as control. Serum and bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) were collected for determination of specific antibodies (days 0, 14, 28 and 42).