The bacterial suspension was adjusted to the desired concentratio

The bacterial suspension was adjusted to the desired concentration (109 cell/day/mouse) for later selleck chemical administration through the oral and nasal routes. Two different serotypes of S. pneumoniae, kindly provided by Dr M. Regueira from the Laboratory of Clinical Bacteriology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Argentina, were used. Freshly grown colonies of S. pneumoniae strains, serotypes 3 and 14, were suspended in Todd Hewitt broth (THB) and incubated at 37°C until the log phase was reached [16]. Then, the cell concentration of the pathogen

was adjusted to the dose used in the challenge assays (106 cells/mouse). Three-week-old (young) Swiss Pictilisib datasheet albino mice were obtained from the closed colony at CERELA. Animals were housed in plastic cages and environmental conditions were kept constant, in agreement with the standards for animal housing. Each parameter studied was carried out in five to six mice for each time-point. The Ethical Committee for Animal Care at CERELA approved experimental protocols. Mice were immunized nasally with recombinant L. lactis PppA (LL), induced previously with nisin, at a dose of 108 cells/day/mouse, on days 0, 14 and 28, following an immunization protocol assessed previously by our team [16]. The inoculum was instilled slowly into the nostril of each

mouse in a 25 µl volume. The inactivated bacterium (D-LL) was administered at the same concentration and using a procedure similar to that used for LL. The administration of the probiotic strain was carried out during the 2 days prior to each immunization with LL or D-LL. The animals treated

orally with the probiotic received 109 cell/day/mouse of L. casei (Lc) in the drinking water. This dose was selected on the basis of our previous studies, in which we demonstrated Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase that Lc induced a significant increase in the innate and acquired immune defence mechanisms of the host in a pneumococcal infection model in adult mice [26]. Nasal administration of the probiotic strains was carried out at the same concentration as oral administration (109 cells/day/mouse) in a final volume of 25 µl and associated only with D-LL. The administration of L. casei in association with the live vaccine through the nasal route was not carried out, because we considered that the application of two live bacteria by this route would imply too high a microbial load in the upper airways. In addition, even if it was beneficial in our model, it would not be of practical or safe application for transference to humans, which is the aim of our research. Young non-immunized mice that received PBS were used as control. Serum and bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) were collected for determination of specific antibodies (days 0, 14, 28 and 42).

Reducing Smad 7 enables the abundant TGF-β in inflamed tissues to

Reducing Smad 7 enables the abundant TGF-β in inflamed tissues to become functional. Consequently, in this study, we demonstrate that synbiotics not only enhanced TGF-β expression, but also reduced Smad 7 protein levels in colonic tissue of Cr-infected mice, resulting in an attenuated mucosal inflammatory and immune responses. Thus, this study may help additionally to identify Smad 7 as a key pro-inflammatory cell signaling molecule altered by probiotic La, prebiotic inulin, and

synbiotic administration in the presence of enteric pathogens and gut-associated inflammation. This work was supported by R21DK074727 and R01DK082427 (to H.N.S.) and the Clinical Nutrition Research Center at Harvard (P30 DK040561) (to W.A.W.). I-F.H. Alisertib solubility dmso is sponsored by Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan. The learn more authors also acknowledge Drs Bobby J. Cherayil and Michelle Conroy for their critical review of the manuscript. O.T.F. and I.-F.H. contributed equally to this work. “
“Although primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is considered a model autoimmune disease, it has not responded therapeutically to traditional immunosuppressive agents. In addition, PBC may recur following liver transplantation, despite the absence of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) matching, in sharp contrast to the well-known paradigm

of MHC restriction. We have suggested previously that invariant natural killer T (iNK T) cells are critical to the initiation of PBC. In this study we have taken advantage of our ability to induce autoimmune cholangitis with 2-octynoic acid, a common component of cosmetics, conjugated to bovine serum albumin (2-OA–BSA), and studied the natural history of pathology in mice genetically deleted for CD4 or CD8 following immunization with 2-OA–BSA in the presence or absence of α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer). In particular, we address whether autoimmune cholangitis can be induced in the absence of traditional CD4 and CD8 responses. We report herein that CD4 and CD8 knock-out mice immunized with 2-OA–BSA/PBS or

2-OA–BSA/α-GalCer develop anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMAs), portal infiltrates and fibrosis. Indeed, our data suggest that the innate immunity is critical for immunopathology Methocarbamol and that the pathology is exacerbated in the presence of α-GalCer. In conclusion, these data provide not only an explanation for the recurrence of PBC following liver transplantation in the absence of MHC compatibility, but also suggest that effective therapies for PBC must include blocking of both innate and adaptive pathways. “
“Haematopoiesis is crucial for immunity because it results in the production of leucocytes. Bacterial and viral infections alter leucocyte production by promoting granulopoiesis or lymphopoiesis.

However, no statistically significant correlation was found betwe

However, no statistically significant correlation was found between TIPE2 mRNA expression and serum IFN-γ level. In conclusion, our data suggest that reduced TIPE2 expression may contribute to the pathogenesis of childhood asthma. Tumour necrosis factor-α-induced protein-8 like-2 (TIPE2) is a newly identified immune negative regulator and mediates the maintenance of immune homeostasis [1]. It belongs to a member of tumour necrosis factor-α-induced protein-8 (TNFAIP8) family which shares highly homologous sequence

[2, 3]. TIPE2 is predominantly expressed on immune cells, such as lymphocytes and macrophages BMN 673 solubility dmso in mice. However, unlike murine TIPE2, human TIPE2 is also expressed on many kinds of non-immune cells, such as hepatocytes and neurons [4]. It has been reported that TIPE2 could negatively regulate both T cell receptor and Toll-like-receptor-mediated

MAPK (JNK and P38, not ERK) and NF-κB signalling pathway [5]. TIPE2-deficient (TIPE2−/−) mice suffer from chronic inflammatory diseases; the T cells and macrophages from TIPE2−/− mice produce significantly increased levels of inflammatory cytokines [6]. In addition, the abnormal expression of TIPE2 was found in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or chronic hepatitis B and renal biopsies of patients with diabetes [7-9]. check details The results suggest that TIPE2 is associated with the development of some chronic inflammatory diseases. Childhood asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the small airways in which

many cells play important roles, in particular T lymphocytes, mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, macrophages, neutrophils and epithelial cells [10, 11]. The airway inflammation results in airflow obstruction, bronchial hyper-responsiveness AMP deaminase and induces variable and recurring symptoms. The development and regulation of airway inflammation are associated with an increase in Th2 cytokines and a decrease in Th1 cytokines [12-14]. The increase in Th2 cytokines results in the overproduction of IgE, differentiation of eosinophils and development of airway hyper-responsiveness. However, Th1 cytokines are antagonistic with the effect of Th2 cytokines [15-17]. Therefore, airway inflammation in asthma may be the result of a loss of normal balance between two types of Th lymphocytes, Th1 and Th2, and plays a central role in the pathophysiology of asthma. TIPE2 is known to negatively regulate inflammation, but the expression and significance of TIPE2 in childhood asthma remain unclear. In this study, we detected the expression level of TIPE2 in PBMC from children with asthma and healthy controls and analysed the correlations of TIPE2 with Th1-type cytokine IFN-γ, Th2-type cytokine IL-4, serum total IgE and eosinophil count. The results showed that the expression of TIPE2 mRNA and protein was reduced in the children with asthma compared with normal controls.

33–39 Of the 418 haplotypes of the parents of the 104 families (h

33–39 Of the 418 haplotypes of the parents of the 104 families (haplotype information was derived from three parents in one family), there were 122 different haplotypes, taking into account both genes and alleles. Of these, 48 were A and 74 were B. Sixty-six haplotypes only occurred on one occasion. In total, 230 (55%) of haplotypes were A and 188 (45%) were B. The percentage of individuals who were homozygous for the A haplotype was Opaganib solubility dmso 32·3%, the percentage homozygous for the B haplotype was 12·1% and 55·6% of individuals had both A and B haplotypes. B haplotypes have previously

been shown to be more prevalent in non-Caucasian populations such as Australia Aborigines and Asian RAD001 solubility dmso Indians,40–43 whereas in Caucasian populations approximately 55% of the population will have A haplotypes and 30% have two A haplotypes.44 It is believed that populations with higher frequencies

of B haplotypes will be those under strong pressure from infectious diseases. The addition of 27 new families to the haplotype study resulted in the definition of 19 new individual haplotypes, some of which occurred more than once. This would indicate that even in a small ethnically homogeneous population, the number of families (77 in the original report) needs to be greatly increased to cover all potential haplotype variation. It is important to note that genes normally associated with the A haplotype can also be found on the B haplotype. These genes, KIR3DL1, KIR2DS4, KIR2DL1, KIR2DL3, were present on 102, 99, 113 and 52 of the 188 B haplotypes, respectively. Ninety-six B haplotypes had both ADP ribosylation factor KIR3DL1 and KIR2DS4. The only activating gene, bar KIR2DL4,

on the A haplotype is KIR2DS4. There are two versions of KIR2DS4, one with the full sequence and one with a short deletion. The deleted version has a 22-base-pair deletion in exon 5, which causes a frame shift leading to a stop codon in exon 745 and it is believed that this version is not expressed at the cell surface. The deleted version (KIR2DS4 alleles *003,004,006,007) is quite common, at 80% in the Northern Ireland population, nearly 60% of the population having only the deleted KIR2DS4. However, there is a trend for decreased frequency of the deleted version in those populations that are homozygous for the A haplotypes.46 Interestingly we found that 30 (62·5%) of the different A haplotypes and 155 (67·4%) of total A haplotypes contained both a deleted version of KIR2DS4 and a deleted version of KIR2DL4, (2DL4-9A). Consequently, in those individuals who have the genotype AA, 43·1% did not have an activating KIR, leading to 13·9% in the overall population not having an activating receptor.

[39, 40] In human endothelial cell culture, oxidized LDL and high

[39, 40] In human endothelial cell culture, oxidized LDL and high concentration of native LDL lead

to upregulation of PRMT and cellular ADMA synthesis that could not be prevented by antioxidants.[40] The known ADMA actions are diverted into NOs dependent Selleck Rapamycin and NOs independent effects (see Table 1). The exact intracellular concentration of ADMA is not yet known, although we do know that the cells have the tendency to increase the methylarginine concentration. Thus, if we add methylarginines in a cell culture medium, their intracellular concentration might increase even five-fold compared to the medium.[49] This is probably due to the transport system of methylargine referred to as the Y+ transporter that intracellularly transports arginine, ornithine, lysine and methylarginines.[24, 49] It is not yet known whether ADMA accumulates in certain cell pockets in extremely high concentrations; however, the observation that the Km1 of DDAH for ADMA is rather high (>100 μmol/L) leads us to the conclusion that under certain conditions, ADMA can attain very high concentrations.[27] It was reported that the intracellular levels of ADMA in freshly isolated brain slices were 10.7 ± 1.3 μmol/L.[50] Endothelial cells have both enzymatic systems, PRMTs and DDAH,[51] and the DDAH inhibition

can lead to a significant accumulation of ADMA.[51] The total production of ADMA selleck screening library from endothelial cells is likely due to a balance between the rhythm of arginine methylation, the rhythm of the degradation of proteins containing methylated arginines, the metabolic rate of ADMA by DDAH and the ADMA output rate from the cells.[27] It is not entirely clear whether the circulating levels of ADMA are biologically Ixazomib concentration active or they are simply a marker for high intracellular concentrations. Many researchers suggest that levels found in

both healthy (≈ 500 nmol/L–1.2 μmol/L, in normal 50–75-year-old human plasma is 0.43–0.56 μmol/L using high performance liquid chromatography,[52] ADMA values in human serum seem to be slightly higher[53]) as well as in pathological conditions (up to ≈ 3 μmol/L) are too low to be considered biologically active.[23, 27] The interest is now focused on the correlation between the ADMA concentrations and arginine concentrations. Arginine plasma concentrations range between 30 and 100 μmol/L and its intracellular concentrations between 1 and 2 mmol/L.[27] Within this vast excess of arginine, one would expect that ADMA remained practically inactive and that it would not inhibit NOs. Following this finding, all researchers came to the conclusion that ADMA has an antagonist action on NOs on the same arginine substrate, but only on the arginine entering the cell through the Y + transporter, assuming the presence of arginine in intracellular stores.[27, 54] The elimination of methylarginines occurs partly by renal excretion.

Exposure to an attenuated mutant of P aeruginosa does not cause

Exposure to an attenuated mutant of P. aeruginosa does not cause increased INS-7 production or DAF-16 repression, leading to the speculation that P. aeruginosa suppresses the host immune FK506 response actively [35]. Alternatively, it is also possible that perception of a chemical signal produced by wild-type P. aeruginosa (and absent from the mutant) causes an active host response involving repression of DAF-16, a general stress response factor, to allow for a more specific host response to P. aeruginosa

infection. Further work is necessary to distinguish between these alternative hypotheses. Similarly, recent work showed that mutants lacking the neuronal GPCR NPR-1, defective in oxygen perception, also exhibit defective host defences in response to P. aeruginosa and S. enterica[39]. This effect was suppressed by mutation of the neuronally expressed guanylate cyclase GCY-35 and its targets TAX-2 and TAX-4, subunits of an ion channel, suggesting that certain specific neurones are involved in repressing the host response to P. aeruginosa in the intestine. Selleck BYL719 Data from a different group, however, challenged this interpretation, arguing that

mutation of npr-1 had an indirect effect on host response genes due to behavioural avoidance of the pathogen. npr-1 mutants do not avoid P. aeruginosa, thereby spending more time on the pathogenic food and succumbing earlier to infection than their wild-type counterparts [40]. The resolution of this debate is likely to shed more light on neuroendocrine regulation of host responses to intestinal infection. The upstream components of the PMK-1/p38 MAPK pathway NSY-1 and SEK-1 are required in the nervous system for the regulation of serotonin upon exposure to P. aeruginosa[41]. Intriguingly, PMK-1 itself is Inositol oxygenase dispensable for this function. Serotonin biogenesis is important for pathogen-induced learning

and behaviours (see below). Aballay and co-workers recently found that S. enterica, which establishes intracellular infections in human epithelial cells, also invades the epithelial cells of the C. elegans pharynx [16]. Pharyngeal invasion is most significant in mutants defective in immune defences, such as ced-1 mutants, which are defective in host defence through a non-canonical UPR pathway expressed in the pharynx, and tol-1 mutants, which have been shown to be slightly defective in the induction of anti-microbial peptide abf-2[16,28]. Thus, CED-1 and TOL-1 function upstream of pharyngeal host defence pathways, but whether they act cell-autonomously in the pharynx remains unknown. Other unresolved issues include the identity of the signalling pathways involved in pathogen detection in the pharynx, and the mechanisms responsible for pharyngeal host defence.

Here, we present the case of a patient who had a left hand skin a

Here, we present the case of a patient who had a left hand skin avulsion of the whole palm and P1 of index, long, ring and small fingers. The left index finger had a complete amputation at the P2 level, the long, ring and small fingers

all had complete amputations at the P1 level. This injury was dealt with by a left foot second and third toe transplant, a sensory free flap from the left big toe and a fourth toe microvascular free transfer to the left hand. The remainder of the defect was managed with a 10 × 14 cm reversed radial forearm flap and a combination Selleck CHIR 99021 of full and split thickness skin grafts. The procedure was performed in a single operation, obviating the need for a second surgery. This procedure optimized the patient’s outcome during a single setting, making it an ideal choice in an emergency setting. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery, 2011. “
“Muscle-in-vein conduits are a good alternative solution to nerve autografts for bridging peripheral nerve defects since enough graft material is available and no loss of sensation at the harvesting area is expected. The purpose of this study was to compare regeneration results after digital nerve reconstruction with muscle-in-vein conduits, nerve autografts, or direct suture. 46 patients with 53 Torin 1 digital nerve injuries of the hand subjected to direct suture (n = 22) or

reconstruction of 1-6cm long defects with either nerve autografts (n = 14) or muscle-in-vein conduits (n = 17) between 2008 and 2012, were examined using the two-point discrimination and Semmes-Weinstein Monofilaments. The follow-up examinations took place 12 to 58 months after surgery. A median reduction of sensibility else of 2 Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments compared with intact digits was observed after direct suture (DS) and of 2.5 and 2 Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments

after reconstruction with autologous nerve grafts (ANG) and muscle-in-vein conduits (MVC), respectively. No statistically significant differences between all three groups could be found with a significance level set by a P < 0.006 (PDS-ANG = 0.24, PDS-MVC = 0.03, PANG-MVC = 0.52). After harvesting a nerve graft, reduction of sensibility at the donor site occurred in 10 of 14 cases but only in one case after harvesting a muscle-in-vein conduit. Muscle-in-vein conduits may be a good alternative solution to autografts for the reconstruction of digital nerves, since no significant differences could be demonstrated between the two methods. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 34:608–615, 2014. "
“Isometric tetanic muscle force has been described in a rat model to evaluate motor recovery in a segmental sciatic nerve defect reconstructions. However, to test longer nerve defects, an alternative and larger animal model is necessary. The purpose of this study is to describe and validate a technique for isometric force measurement of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle in New Zealand rabbits.

Recently, we demonstrated that Fli-1 plays a very important role

Recently, we demonstrated that Fli-1 plays a very important role in B cell development [18]. In Fli-1ΔCTA/Fli-1ΔCTA homozygous Panobinostat nmr B6 mice that express a truncated Fli-1 protein lacking the carboxy-terminal transcriptional activation domain, the follicular B cell population is decreased significantly, whereas marginal zone B cells were increased markedly. Thus, Fli-1 may affect autoantibody production by altering B cell development [18]. The role of follicular B cells and marginal zone B cells in autoreactive

B cell development is not clear at this time, as both types of B cells were implicated, depending upon the model, in autoantibody production. Some studies suggested that marginal zone B cells contribute to the pathogenic autoantibody production; other studies, however, implicated the follicular B cell population for the autoreactive B cell development [19–21]. The B cell clearly has important pathogenic roles in disease development independent Selleck Kinase Inhibitor Library of autoantibody production. Although not tested as yet, Fli-1 may also impact B cell antigen-presenting function

and/or cytokine production. We found that Fli-1+/− MRL/lpr mice that received WT MRL/lpr BM had lower renal scores and improved survival, although there was no statistical significance. Glomurulonephritis with lupus is a major cause of death in both human patients and animal models of lupus. Expression of Egr-1 was demonstrated recently to be an important mediator of mesangial cell proliferation during experimental glomerulonephritis [22,23]. Direct inhibition of expression of Egr-1 by anti-sense oligonucleotides resulted in decreased renal disease in this experimental model [23]. 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase A previous report demonstrated that Fli-1 enhanced the expression of Egr-1 through direct promoter transactivation [24]. It is possible that the decreased renal disease and improved

survival in Fli-1+/− MRL/lpr mice receiving WT MRL/lpr mice BM was due to the lower expression of Egr-1 in these mice, although local renal expression of Egr-1 would appear to be more important in renal pathology than expression of Egr-1 in inflammatory cells. Preliminary microarray analysis demonstrated decreased expression of Egr-1 in the kidneys of Fli-1+/− MRL/lpr mice compared to WT MRL/lpr mice, and the expression of Egr-1 in the kidneys from Fli-1+/− MRL/lpr mice was about threefold lower compared to WT MRL/lpr mice by real time PCR (data not shown). BM transplantation in animal models of inflammatory/autoimmune diseases is used to study the contribution of haematopoietic versus non-haematopoietic cell lineages to disease development [14].

38 and 2 45, respectively] Using multiple SNPs in the logistic r

38 and 2.45, respectively]. Using multiple SNPs in the logistic regression for covariates, wild-type AhR and mutant AhRR combination was significantly higher in patients (67.8%) than in controls (48.0%) (OR = 2.76). On the other hand, mutant AhRR in combination with GSTM1 null genotype was significantly higher in patients

(35.5%) than in controls (19.3%) (OR = 6.12). Conclusion  Polymorphisms of dioxin receptor complex components and detoxification-related genes jointly confer susceptibility to advanced-stage endometriosis in the Taiwanese Han population. “
“Clostridium difficile is a pathogen responsible for diarrhoea and colitis, particularly after antibiotic treatment. Obeticholic Acid mouse We evaluated the C. difficile protease Cwp84, found to be associated with the S-layer proteins, as a vaccine antigen to limit the C. difficile intestinal colonization and therefore the development of the infection in a clindamycin-treated hamster model. First, we evaluated the immune response and the animal protection against death induced by several immunization routes: rectal, intragastric and subcutaneous. Antibody production was variable according to the immunization routes. In addition, serum Cwp84 antibody titres did not always correlate with animal protection after challenge with a toxigenic RO4929097 cost C. difficile strain. The best survival rate was observed with the rectal route of immunization. Then, in a second assay, we selected

this immunization route to perform a larger immunization assay including a Cwp84 immunized group and a control group. Clostridium difficile intestinal colonization and survival rate, as well as the immune response were examined. Clostridium difficile hamster challenge resulted in a 26% weaker and slower C. difficile intestinal

colonization in the immunized group. Furthermore, hamster survival in the Cwp84 immunized group was 33% greater than that of the control group, with a significant statistical difference. Following the disruption of the normal bowel microbiota by antibiotic therapy, Clostridium difficile colonizes the gut, resulting in a spectrum of diseases ranging 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase from asymptomatic carriage to pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) (Kelly & LaMont, 1998; Wilcox, 2003). The disease symptoms are mediated by two secreted enterotoxins: TcdA and TcdB. Clostridium difficile is shed in the faeces as spores that persist in the environment and facilitate the colonization of new individuals. Clostridium difficile is thus a particular problem in health care facilities, where transmission easily occurs between patients and from carriers to patients (McFarland et al., 1989). Measures to prevent C. difficile infection (CDI) through patient isolation are costly and have had variable success. Although previously considered rare, the incidences of community-acquired CDI and colitis are on the increase. After the acquisition of C.

There was a significant number of false positive BAL GM assays an

There was a significant number of false positive BAL GM assays and several of those patients were receiving beta-lactam antibiotics at the time of bronchoscopy. “
“We report two cases of invasive zygomycoses occurring in severely immunocompromised patients with

haematological malignancies that were successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B and surgical debridement, followed by oral administration of posaconazole. These cases demonstrated that an early instituted, aggressive and combined therapeutic approach results in a recovery from invasive fungal infection, without any relapse of infection, thanks to secondary prophylaxis using posaconazole. “
“Dermatophytes are the most common causative agents of cutaneous mycosis and remain a major public health problem in spite of the availability of an increasing number of antifungal Selleck CB-839 drugs. It was, therefore considered necessary to pursue the screening of CP-690550 different extracts (compounds) of selected traditional medicinal plants reportedly having antidermatophyte potential. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify specific compound from the most active extract (free flavonoid) of stem of Terminalia chebula of the selected plants to treat dermatophytosis induced on experimental mice. Mice which were experimentally induced with Trichophyton mentagrophytes were grouped in six of five animals each. To treat the lesions

on infected mice, two concentrations of isolated apigenin ointment, i.e. 2.5 mg g−1 (Api I) and 5 mg g−1 (Api II), and terbinafine (standard) of concentration 5 mg g−1 were used. Complete recovery from the infection was recorded on 12th day of treatment for reference drug Terbinafine and Api II (5 mg g−1) concentration of ointment, Methane monooxygenase whereas Api I (2.5 mg g−1) ointment showed complete cure on 16th day of treatment. Fungal burden was also calculated by culturing skin scraping from infected mice’s of different groups. Apigenin has shown potency as the infected animals recover completely by Api II comparable to the standard drug in 12th day. So Apigenin

can be explored as an antifungal agent in the clinical treatment of dermatophytosis in future. “
“An antifungal protein designated as anti-Aspergillus protein (AAP), produced by Escherichia coli DH5α, was purified and characterised. It exhibited a molecular weight of 60 kDa on Sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and depicted 99% purity on ultra performance liquid chromatography. The purified protein manifested antimycotic potential against pathogenic isolates of Aspergillus spp., depicting a minimum inhibitory concentration in the range 15.62–31.25 μg ml−1 and 5.0–10.0 μg per disc, using microbroth dilution, spore germination inhibition and disc diffusion assays respectively. In vitro toxicity tests demonstrated that it showed no toxicity against human erythrocytes at doses up to 1000 μg ml−1.