Given that the only unifying property between the permanent items

Given that the only unifying property between the permanent items was this high level feature, it is perhaps surprising that the magnitude of classifier accuracy was so great, being very significantly above the level of chance. This reinforces the functional importance of the representation of permanence, and underscores the selective response of the RSC to this item feature. PI3K targets Subjects were also instructed not to link the items that comprised an array together into a scene, and confirmed in post-scan ratings they had not

done so, rather they had viewed them as separate entities. This, along with the finding of the RSC responding specifically to the number of permanent items, Ibrutinib does not fit easily with the idea that RSC (and PHC) processes the three dimensional geometric structure of scenes (Epstein, 2008, Epstein and Ward, 2010, Henderson et al., 2008 and Henderson et al., 2011) or that RSC contains

no information about objects (Harel, Kravitz, & Baker, 2012). Our results are more consistent with a proposal from MacEvoy and Epstein (2011) that a unified representation of whole scenes arises from parallel processing of individual objects within them. Here, we provide further evidence for the simultaneous processing of multiple items, but extend this by identifying a mechanism whereby the properties of local items within a space are key (Mullally and Maguire, 2011), with their permanence seeming to be particularly important. The increased activity in RSC in response to scenes with an explicit three dimensional structure that have been reported frequently in the literature could reflect the presence of multiple permanent items within them. This accords with our previous proposal (Auger et al., 2012) that the RSC’s contribution may be to provide input regarding permanent items upon which other brain areas (e.g., the hippocampus) can then build effective spatial and scene

representations that are central to episodic memories, PRKACG imagining the future and spatial navigation (Hassabis and Maguire, 2007, Maguire and Mullally, 2013, Ranganath and Ritchey, 2012 and Schacter et al., 2012). The specific nature of RSC input was unclear. Our demonstration here that RSC represents every individual permanent item that is in view, shows that the information it represents and makes available is detailed and precise. It is particularly interesting that the information available in the multi-voxel activity patterns in RSC related significantly to the efficacy of participants’ spatial navigation. We previously found poor navigators to be less reliable at characterising permanent, ‘never moving’, items compared to good navigators, and also to have reduced responses in RSC when viewing permanent items in isolation (Auger et al., 2012).

The authors who have taken part in this study declare that they d

The authors who have taken part in this study declare that they do not have anything to disclose regarding funding or conflict of interest

with respect to this manuscript. The authors who have taken part in this study do not have a relationship with the manufacturers of the drugs used either in the past or present and do not receive funding from the manufacturers to carry out their research. This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 81272555, 81070327, 81071895 and 30971174) and Excellent Project of the Fourth Military Medical University (for Ya-Yun Wang). Ya-Yun Wang and Yan-Ling Yang conceived of the review and drafted the manuscript. Bao-Lin

Guo and Chen-Xi Zheng participated in the design of the figures and helped to draft the manuscript. Bing-Dong Sui 3 MA participated in the design of the selleck chemical review and helped to revise the manuscript. Yun-Qing Li helped to revise the manuscript. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript. “
“Antivenom immunotherapy still is the most effective treatment for victims of venomous animals, particularly snakes and scorpions. The efficacy of conventional antivenoms in neutralizing most of the toxic properties of the venom, including their lethality, has been improved by the introduction of modifications in production protocols dictated by new discoveries in basic immunology and protein chemistry. Moreover, immunization schedules are continuously adapted, new adjuvants have been introduced, and the resulting antibodies are better isolated, assayed, and characterized. Despite the progress in the preparation of conventional antivenoms, the risk of adverse reactions remains (Cardoso et al., 1993; Otero-Patiño et al., 1998; FUNASA, 2001). Although F(ab′)2 rich antivenoms are just as effective as the rich intact IgG in neutralizing venom toxins, their side-effects and ability to activate the host complement system have not yet been eliminated (Chippaux and Goyffon, 1991; Chippaux, 1991). In Brazil, of the 17,704 snake accidents

(incidence rate: 10.4 accidents/100,000 inhabitants) reported in 1999, 21% (3697) snake bites occurred in the northern Liothyronine Sodium region, where only 7.6% of the Brazilian population live (28.6 accidents/100,000 inhabitants) (IBGE, 2004). In that region, Bothrops atrox is the major snake group responsible for accidents ( FUNASA, 2001). B. atrox snake venom, like the venom from other Bothrops species, is a complex mixture that includes proteins exhibiting proteolytic activity ( Rosenfeld, 1971; Kamiguti and Cardoso, 1989). Some of these proteins are proteases, whose substrates include components of the blood clotting system such as factors XII, X, and fibrinogen ( Nahas et al., 1964; Kamiguti et al., 1992).

In addition, the basin-wide circulation patterns are modified by

In addition, the basin-wide circulation patterns are modified by the influence of the outlet-inlet of the Suur Strait. The resulting patterns included several wave-like cycles (meanders or gyres), which shifted intricately when wind was slowly

changing (Figure 6b). The wavelengths were as small as 5–6 km near the Saaremaa coast, but the patterns were more or less persistent at different wind speeds. Only minor alterations of wind speed occurred in the central part of the transect in wind directions blowing more or less along the transect (i.e. 90°, 135°, 270° and 315°). At the entrance to the 5–6 km wide Suur Strait, just two flow possibilities remained. All winds with a positive v-component elicited a northward current and a negative meridional wind component gave rise to a southward current. The direct influence of the Suur Strait flows was perceptible up to a distance of

approximately Doramapimod supplier 20 km into the northern Gulf. The influence of the Suur Strait on the basin-wide flow patterns was negligible with W and E winds. Although the models performed acceptably well, both in validation and in reproducing meso-scale hydrodynamic features, the ultimate goal of the study was a long-term hindcast. Simulated currents over 46 years demonstrated a large temporal variability. Typical velocities were 5–20 cm s− 1, but during extreme storms (e.g. in 1967, 1980, 2005) velocities up to 1 m s− 1 were occasionally found. In an attempt to somehow summarize the huge amount of data and to describe climatological-scale variations, KU-57788 cost the cumulative longshore velocity components (Figure 8) as well as the cumulative flows through the cross-sections of the straits were calculated for each year. Despite the large scatter of conditions in individual years, the shapes of the whole ensembles as well as the average current trajectories indicated specific intra-annual patterns. At Kõiguste, the current was directed mostly north-westwards, faster in autumn and winter, slower in spring and summer (Figure 8a). At Matsi, northward flows were more probable in autumn and winter, southward flows were more

likely in summer (Figure 8b). Plotting Sclareol the last readings of each year against the year yielded time series like those on Figure 9. As mentioned in connection with Figure 2, seasonal sea-ice can influence both currents and waves in the Gulf of Riga. There have been winters when there was no notable ice cover on the Gulf (e.g. 1988/89, 1989/90, 1991/92, 2001/02, 2007/08), but in a few winters the whole Gulf was fully ice-bound for 2–4 months. To eliminate such influences, parallel sets of cumulative currents were created, in which data from January to April were omitted, the annual series beginning equally on 1 May. Also, the summer months (May to August) were studied separately. However, it appeared that the trends in shorter series remained nearly unchanged (Figure 9a–d).

, 2010) Ouabain, a digitalis-derived glycoside is a well-recogni

, 2010). Ouabain, a digitalis-derived glycoside is a well-recognized Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor, especially pronounced at high concentrations. It also enhances LPS down-regulated iNOS activity in peritoneal macrophages (Sowa and Przewlocki, 1997). Ouabain, PD 332991 at extremely low concentrations, nanomolar and picomolar, stimulates

Na+/K+-ATPase activity (Zhang et al., 2008), and activates complex signalling cascades in kidney cells (Holthouser et al., 2010), and in cardiac and smooth muscle cells (Manunta et al., 2010). Ouabain also decreases the release of IL-1β in astrocytes (Forshammar et al., 2011). Bupivacaine is known to block Na+ channels at high concentrations and change the excitability of action potentials. Clinically, this drug has been used in the treatment of various inflammation-related conditions and diseases (Cassuto et al., 2006), and to treat long-term pain in both cancer and noncancer patients (Deer et al., 2002). Later it has been observed that local anaesthetics possess anti-inflammatory properties through their effects on cells of the immune system. These agents also attenuate the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β from intestinal cells (Lahav et al., 2002 and Bedirli et al., 2011). The purpose with the present study was to investigate if a number of non-steroid anti-inflammatory substances, administered within a wide dose range (10−12 M to 10−6 M) influence microglial release

of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The MAPK inhibitor microglial cells were stained with antibodies against the microglial specific antigen OX42, and with antibodies against TLR4, revealing that these cells do express TLR4 receptors (Fig. 1(A)). Microglia express TLR4 visualised with Western blot (Fig. 1(B)). Cultures were incubated with LPS for 0.5, 1, 4, 8, or 24 h. TLR4 is seen as a band at approximately 70 kDa. Full length TLR4 is observed at approximately 90 kDa, but cleavage fragments have been observed at 30 and 60 kDa (Zager et al., 2007). Since no other bands were present on the membrane the TLR4 antibody was considered specific even though it did not match the full size TLR4. The TLR4 is measured as integrated density and presented

as % of 0 h (Fig. 1(C)). Microglia incubated with LPS for 0.5, 1, 4, 8, or 24 h released TNF-α and IL-1β in accumulating Parvulin amount over time. After 4 h incubation a small release of TNF-α was observed, but it was not significant until 8 h of incubation (P<0.01; n=8), with increasing release after 24 h incubation (P>0.001; n=8) ( Fig. 2(A)). IL-1β release was small after 1, 4, and 8 h, and was significantly accumulated after 24 h ( Fig. 2(B)). Microglia were treated with dexamethasone or corticosterone 30 min before the cells were incubated with a cocktail of LPS and dexamethasone or corticosterone. TNF-α release was attenuated after both dexamethasone and corticosterone treatment (P<0.001; n=9) ( Fig. 3(A)). IL-1β release was attenuated after both dexamethasone and corticosterone treatment (P<0.001; n=9) ( Fig. 3(B)).

In doing so, we will adhere

In doing so, we will adhere learn more to the dual nature and function of skeletal stem cells, which act as progenitors, and act as non-progenitors [5]. Skeletal stem cells (also known as bone marrow-derived “mesenchymal” stem cells) generate all different lineages that together comprise the skeleton, and those lineages only. At the same time, they organize the vasculature of bone and bone marrow [2], establish the microenvironment for growth and differentiation of hematopoietic cells and establish the “niche” for hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) [2], [3] and [6]. This notion comes originally

from studies using human cells and refined in vivo transplantation approaches [2], which were then confirmed in their key conceptual advances by a wealth of subsequent studies in the mouse, either using similar approaches, or genetic tools, or combinations of both [3], [7], [8], [9], [10] and [11]. At this time, efforts are being made to elucidate the potential diversity of local bone marrow territories with respect to hematopoietic functions, and the specific functions of putative (and as yet, GSK2126458 not conclusively identified) stromal subsets, or non-stromal cell types such as endothelial cells [10], [12] and [13] or neural cells [14] and [15]. However, recent data in the mouse directly support the general key concept that perivascular stromal skeletal stem cells (otherwise known as bone marrow-derived “mesenchymal” stem

cells [16]) act both as progenitors for skeletal tissues and as key players of the perivascular HME/niche also in the mouse [11] and [13]. The manner in which the function of skeletal stem cells is probed in the human system [i.e., heterotopic transplantation, also of clonal, single cell-derived populations [reviewed in [16]], to the effect of recapitulating the organogenesis of bone, illustrates these functions and their unique nature ADAMTS5 most effectively, in sharp contrast with other types of stem cells. Transplantation is the mainstay of stem cell biology. Transplantation of HSCs results in reconstitution of hematopoiesis; transplantation of epithelial stem cells in the reconstitution

of epithelial tissues; transplantation of pluripotent embryonic stem cells results in teratomas (i.e., in the chaotic admixture of all differentiated lineages); transplantation of skeletal stem cells results in the generation of different skeletal tissues, yes, but also in a highly coordinated, mutual organization of donor tissues with host tissues in a chimeric organoid [2], [5] and [6]. Skeletal stem cells are found in the bone marrow stroma. In situ, the bone marrow stroma is a highly elusive tissue, due to the simple fact that the key cell type, the adventitial reticular cell, escapes detection in conventional histological sections, and can only be visualized using a cytochemical stain (alkaline phosphatase) [17], [18] and [19] or immunocytochemical markers (e.g., CD146, CD105, CD90) [2].

Biomarker analysis of the BR 21 study showed survival among patie

Biomarker analysis of the BR.21 study showed survival among patients with high EGFR expression was longer in the erlotinib arm versus the placebo arm, whereas a limited advantage Oligomycin A purchase of erlotinib treatment was seen in patients with EGFR IHC-negative tumors [22]. These results were the basis for the inclusion of PFS in patients with EGFR IHC-positive disease as a co-primary endpoint in SATURN. However,

Pérez-Soler et al. reported no correlation between survival and EGFR expression (p = 0.90) in NSCLC patients treated with erlotinib in the second-/third-line setting [23]. Additionally, Murray et al. demonstrated no correlation between EGFR protein expression and disease control rate in erlotinib-treated patients

when staining for total EGFR or phosphorylated EGFR [24]. For the SATURN study, using a positive threshold of ≥10% membrane staining failed to identify any correlation between EGFR expression and patient outcomes. Using a different IHC analysis method (H-score with application of the magnification rule) in the present analysis did not change the correlation Nutlin-3a cell line between EGFR expression levels and PFS or OS in SATURN. The different results between these studies suggest that the value of EGFR IHC to predict clinical outcomes may vary between different EGFR inhibitors and across different patient populations and treatment settings. The BioLOGUE advisors recently concluded that EGFR IHC status was weakly prognostic Etofibrate but not predictive of outcomes with erlotinib, and noted that inconsistency across trials meant EGFR IHC was not a suitable biomarker [25]. Assessment of total receptor expression may not be the most accurate indicator of response to EGFR TKIs, as EGFR activating mutations are considered to be more important than EGFR protein expression levels. It has been suggested that a combination of IHC and fluorescence in situ hybridization may provide more suitable analysis [24], but this method has not yet been investigated in clinical trials. One reason that previous EGFR IHC studies might not have shown correlations with treatment response may be that the majority of diagnostic

antibodies target the external domain of the receptor, while it is mutations in the internal tyrosine-kinase domain that result in the increased response to erlotinib. The use of a diagnostic antibody that targets the internal EGFR domain (such as 5B7) [26] might result in better prediction of response with erlotinib using IHC. The results of this re-analysis suggest that EGFR IHC does not accurately predict erlotinib benefit for the overall population or the EGFR WT population in the first-line maintenance setting for advanced NSCLC. Dr Mazieres has received honoraria from Roche, Pfizer, Eli Lilly and Boehringer Ingelheim. Dr Bara and Dr Klingelschmitt are employees of Roche. Dr Klughammer is an employee of Roche and owns stocks in F.

In-silico analysis of the target phage region determined

In-silico analysis of the target phage region determined AP24534 mouse that the region selected in this study is specific to Las and not present in other members of Rhizobiales. We have validated the LAMP protocols described here using psyllids from Florida, Brazil, India and Pakistan (data not shown), as well as from a range of different citrus varieties (Supplementary Table 1). Since LAMP technique is highly sensitive, contamination of samples can potentially become a problem. This can be resolved by a few simple guidelines: a) discarding LAMP reaction tubes after the assay without opening; b) using 8-strip tubes with individual caps, opening and closing one tube at

a time; c) cleaning work area, pipets and other plastic ware with 0.1 × commercial bleach; d) using gloves during testing and e) testing psyllid samples in the farm/grove where they are collected rather BIBW2992 than transporting all psyllid samples to a central location. Growers should be encouraged to test pools of psyllids with up to 10 psyllids per extraction. While a positive result would mean the presence of Liberibacter, a negative result may not mean absence of the pathogen. The percentage of psyllids carrying the pathogen is usually low under field conditions and varies greatly in different seasons. Hence, testing of large number of psyllids

in different seasons is desirable. The LAMP technology will be very useful for citrus growing regions where HLB has either not been found, or is in the initial stages of the epidemic. The disease clonidine situation in Florida reached alarming proportions in a very short period of time (Gottwald, 2010 and Halbert et al., 2012). Pro-active measures in citrus growing regions of the United States where the imminent danger of HLB exists but the disease has not established yet, like California, Texas and Arizona, may assist both HLB prevention/suppression and psyllid management regimen. We believe that large scale testing of the psyllid by many interested parties working together with the regulatory agencies will achieve such a goal. While finding a positive psyllid may not

lead to any regulatory actions, the grower can start immediate action to prevent further spread of the pathogen by suppressing psyllid population. Control of psyllids and targeting Las-positive psyllids is a short-term solution to delaying the epidemic and mitigation of the disease. Long-term solution for this devastating disease consists of developing HLB tolerant/resistant cultivars. Till that goal is achieved, other strategic methods of disease control will be useful in disease management. Funding from California Citrus Nursery Board, CNAB 2013 Lee is gratefully acknowledged. The project was developed after discussion with some citrus growers and nurserymen in California. The funding agency had no involvement in the study design, analyses or interpretation of data.

Die Daten aus Querschnittsstudien zum Einfluss der Iodaufnahme au

Die Daten aus Querschnittsstudien zum Einfluss der Iodaufnahme auf das Wachstum bei Kindern sind uneinheitlich, wobei die meisten Untersuchungen schwach positive Korrelationen ergaben [20]. In fünf asiatischen Ländern wurde die Verfügbarkeit von iodiertem Salz in Haushalten mit einem, auf das Alter bezogen, höheren Körpergewicht und einem größeren Umfang des mittleren Oberarms bei Kindern korreliert [21]. Jedoch zeigten sich bei kontrollierten Interventionsstudien sowohl mit iodiertem Öl allein als auch mit Iod, das mit anderen Mikronährstoffen zusammen gegeben wurde, im allgemeinen keine Effekte auf das Wachstum bei Kindern [20]. Bei Kindern Osimertinib mit Iodmangel stehen gestörte Schilddrüsenfunktion

und Struma in umgekehrter Korrelation mit den Konzentrationen von Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF)-1 and Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein (IGFBP)-3 [22]. Aktuelle kontrollierte Studien zeigten, dass Iodgabe die IGF-1- und

IGFBP-3-Spiegel erhöht und das Körperwachstum bei Kindern fördert [20]. Insgesamt gesehen verursacht Iodmangel subtile, aber weit verbreitete gesundheitliche Störungen in Populationen, einschließlich geringerer Lernfähigkeit, Apathie und reduzierter Selleckchem Thiazovivin Arbeitsproduktivität, wodurch die soziale und ökonomische Entwicklung negativ beeinflusst wird. Da milder bis moderater Iodmangel bis zu 30% der Weltbevölkerung betrifft (siehe nächster Abschnitt) und die Kognition bei Kindern beeinträchtigen kann, wird Iodmangel als die häufigste vermeidbare Ursache für mentale Retardierung weltweit angesehen. Die

International Child Development Steering Group hat Iodmangel als einen der vier Hauptrisikofaktoren für Entwicklungsstörungen bei Kindern identifiziert, bei denen die dringende Notwendigkeit einer Intervention besteht [23]. Nur einige wenige Länder – die Schweiz, einige Skandinavische Länder, Australien, die USA und Kanada – waren vor 1990 optimal mit Iod versorgt. Seither ist die Zahl der Haushalte, in denen iodiertes Speisesalz verwendet wird, von < 20% auf > 70% angestiegen, was den Iodmangel dramatisch 6-phosphogluconolactonase zurückgedrängt hat [24]. Diese Anstrengung ist von einer Koalition internationaler Organisationen, darunter ICCIDD, WHO, MI und UNICEF, die eng mit nationalen Komitees zur Beseitigung des Iodmangels sowie der Nahrungsmittelindustrie zusammenarbeiten, vorangetrieben worden. Diese informelle Partnerschaft wurde nach dem Weltkindergipfel 1990 ins Leben gerufen. Sie wird finanziell unterstützt durch Kiwanis International, die Gates-Stiftung und Hilfsprogramme verschiedener Länder. Nach Schätzungen der WHO waren im Jahr 2007 fast zwei Milliarden Menschen nicht adäquat mit Iod versorgt, einschließlich eines Drittels aller Kinder im Schulalter [25] (Tabelle 2). Die niedrigste Prävalenz des Iodmangels findet sich in Nord- und Südamerika (10,6%), wo der Anteil der Haushalte, in denen iodiertes Speisesalz verwendet wird, weltweit am größten ist (≈ 90%).

The finding of a “harmful” pattern of plaque vascularization may

The finding of a “harmful” pattern of plaque vascularization may indeed be limited to a small area of the plaque, but its visual identification is, in our experience, highly representative of the “plaque activity”. Some methods to obtain a “ratio” carotid lumen versus plaque texture has been proposed, with the same limitations related to the already described pitfalls in semiquantitative computerized analysis. Contrast carotid ultrasound is an emerging technique, easily available and quick to perform, that adds important clinical and research information of the “in vivo” pathophysiological status, with low costs and invasiveness. In symptomatic stroke patients with

carotid plaques addressed toward surgery, contrast carotid examinations could help to better analyze plaque morphology

and selleck inhibitor to identify and quantify the presence and degree of neovascularization, allowing a further assessment of the cerebrovascular risk. Larger studies are though needed to clarify the prognostic value of plaque vascularization detection in asymptomatic patients with non-severe carotid stenosis that are not candidated for surgery. Moreover, the identification and evaluation of plaque angiogenesis may be in the future useful to evaluate the possible effects of therapies aimed to plaque remodeling. “
“Ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of disability and mortality in industrialized countries. Patient outcome mainly depends on the time span between onset of symptoms and revascularization, recanalization rate and the occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) [1]. Therefore, fast and effective Ku-0059436 reperfusion in combination with a low rate of sICH is the key to successful Astemizole stroke treatment. Systemic thrombolysis with intravenously administered tissue plasminogen activator (IV rtPA) and local intra-arterial thrombolysis (IAT) have been shown to be effective to improve patient outcome. However, the time window for treatment

and the recanalization rate of both methods are limited [2], [3] and [4]. Furthermore, the application of thrombolytic drugs increases the risk of sICH [5]. Moreover, recanalization rate is dependent on the site of occlusion: proximal occlusions of large brain supplying vessels such as the internal carotid artery have a limited recanalization rate after either IV rtPA or IAT [3] and [4]. Therefore, the aim of mechanical recanalization approaches is to improve recanalization rates, reduce the time to recanalization and further expand the window of opportunity. Furthermore, the waiving of thrombolytic drugs is considered to reduce the rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. Different techniques and approaches have been advocated for mechanical thrombolysis in acute stroke treatment, which can be divided into: immediate flow restoration using self-expandable stents and thrombectomy.

The two compounds are freely soluble in cell media to a concentra

The two compounds are freely soluble in cell media to a concentration of 500 μM, if they are first dissolved in DMSO. Thus, when determining the GARD input concentration, 500 μM will be Rapamycin datasheet the high end of the titration range. Cell stimulations were performed as described, and harvested cells were stained with PI (Fig. 2A). The relative viability of cells stimulated with 2-nitro-1,4-phenylendiamine decreases with increasing stimuli concentration. The Rv90 value for this compound is identified at a concentration of 300 μM. In contrast, methyl salicylate does not have any cytotoxic effect on MUTZ-3, as the relative viability

remains unchanged with increasing stimuli concentration. Thus, the GARD input concentrations for 2-nitro-1,4-phenylendiamine and methyl salicylate are 300 and 500 μM, respectively. Once the GARD input concentration for all samples to be assayed are established, cell stimulations for 24 h are repeated. Cells are harvested, RNA is isolated, cDNA is prepared and arrays are hybridized as described. Both stimulations are performed in triplicate, independent experiments. Thereafter, the array data from the triplicate stimulations are normalized,

together with available training data, with the RMA algorithm, In this case, the training data refer to the remaining 36 stimulations and vehicle controls used for the establishment of the GARD Prediction Signature (Johansson et al., 2011), a total Alectinib of 131 arrays. At this point, the training data is used for training an SVM model. The model is then used to classify the test data, i.e. 2-nitro-1,4-phenylindiamine and methyl salicylate, as either sensitizer or non-sensitizer (Fig. 2B). The

obtained decision values for this experiment BCKDHB are presented in Table 1. The reproducibility of GARD was determined by assessing the correlation between the triplicate samples of each of the 38 reference chemicals used for assay development. RNA from these triplicate samples were collected at different days and on different batches of cells. Thus, biological variations in terms of cell cycle and growth rate are integrated in the assessment of reproducibility, as well as technical variation during RNA isolation, array hybridization and variation between array batches. The variation in raw signal was assessed by studying Pearson’s correlation coefficient (Table 2). The correlation coefficient is calculated by comparing data for the 200 genes in the GARD Prediction Signature, or for data derived from the complete array. For the GARD Prediction Signature, the correlation coefficient is 0.99 or above in 86% of all comparisons made. The lowest correlation between replicates is observed for penicillin G and p-phenylendiamine, with a coefficient of 0.97. When comparing replicates based on the full array, only Penicillin G has a coefficient below 0.99. Thus, the data is highly reproducible, with stable expression levels of the measured transcripts in technical and biological replicates.