By employing the p(+) nc-Si:H as a window layer, complete p-i-n s

By employing the p(+) nc-Si:H as a window layer, complete p-i-n structures were fabricated and characterized. Low leakage current and enhanced sensitivity in the UV/blue range were achieved by incorporating an a-SiC:H buffer between the p- and i-layers. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Survey results show that in spring season, turbot population was concentrated in the Bulgarian SCH 900776 nmr – Romanian transboundary area and was shared between countries. The maxima of abundance indices occurred

in depths between 50 – 75 m in both areas. Length composition of turbot catches included size classes between 26.5 and 74.5 cm and low abundance of young individuals was observed. Age structure encompassed 2-8-year-old fish. Studies on the spawning process of turbot population show that an active

spawning process was observed in the Romanian area, but, in Bulgarian waters, the majority of individuals were resting after spawning.”
“Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh) A. Love and Elymus wawawaiensis J. Carlson & Barkworth are two native perennial grasses widely used for restoration in the Intermountain West. However, the rapid establishment and spread of Bromus tectorum L., an invasive annual grass, has led to a decline in the abundance of native perennial grasses. Proliferation of B. tectorum has been attributed to its early germination, superior cold-temperature growth, profuse root production, and high specific leaf area (SLA). To enhance restoration success, we compared B. tectorum to commercially available plant materials of two perennial rangeland bunchgrasses, P. spicata (cv. Whitmar, cv. Goldar, and Anatone Germplasm) and E. wawawaiensis (cv. Secar), for germination, seedling morphological traits, and growth rates at the immature seedling

stage. We monitored germination and immature seedling growth in a growth chamber in two separate experiments, one under low (5/10 degrees C) and the other under high (15/20 degrees C) day/night temperatures. Compared to the average of the two perennials, B. tectorum was 93% (77%) greater at high (and low) temperature for root:shoot length ratio, but only 14% (14%) greater for root:shoot biomass ratio and 12% (19%) lower for SLA. This suggests that B. tectorum’s substantial investment in surface area of roots, rather than in shoot length, root biomass, or leaf area, may be responsible for the annual’s success at the early seedling stage. Compared to E. wawawaiensis, P. spicata averaged 65% (41%) higher shoot biomass, 39% (88%) higher root biomass, and 70% (10%) higher absolute growth rate, but 25% (15%) lower SLA and 15% (36%) lower specific root length (SRL) at high (and low) temperatures, respectively. Although P. spicata’s greater productivity may initially make for better seedling establishment than E.

Disordered secretion of zymogen granules (foci of their accumulat

Disordered secretion of zymogen granules (foci of their accumulation in the apical zone), hyperplasia and hypertrophy of centroacinar

cells and ductal epitheliocytes aimed at restoration of the pancreatic secretion discharge pathways were seen in the retained acini.”
“It has been postulated that triheptanoin can ameliorate seizures by supplying the tricarboxylic acid cycle with both acetyl-CoA for energy production and propionyl-CoA to replenish cycle intermediates. These potential effects may also be important in other disorders associated with impaired glucose metabolism because glucose supplies, in addition to acetyl-CoA, pyruvate, which fulfills biosynthetic demands via carboxylation. In patients with glucose transporter type I deficiency (G1D), ketogenic diet fat (a source only of acetyl-CoA) reduces seizures, but other symptoms persist, providing the motivation for studying heptanoate metabolism. In this work, metabolism of infused [5,6,7-C-13(3)]heptanoate

was examined in the normal mouse brain and in G1D by C-13-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In both groups, plasma glucose was enriched in C-13, confirming gluconeogenesis from heptanoate. Acetyl-CoA and glutamine levels became significantly higher in the brain of G1D mice Combretastatin A4 clinical trial relative

to normal Ricolinostat mice. In addition, brain glutamine concentration and C-13 enrichment were also greater when compared with glutamate in both animal groups, suggesting that heptanoate and/or C5 ketones are primarily metabolized by glia. These results enlighten the mechanism of heptanoate metabolism in the normal and glucose-deficient brain and encourage further studies to elucidate its potential antiepileptic effects in disorders of energy metabolism. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism (2013) 33, 175-182; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2012.151; published online 17 October 2012″
“Angioedema refers to a localized, transient swelling of the deep skin layers or the upper respiratory or gastrointestinal mucosa. It develops as a result of mainly two different vasoactive peptides, histamine or bradykinin. Pathophysiology, as well as treatment, is different in each case; nevertheless, the resulting signs and symptoms may be similar and difficult to distinguish. Angioedema may occur at any location. When the affected area involves the upper respiratory tract, both forms of angioedema can lead to an imminent upper airway obstruction and a life-threatening emergency. Emergency physicians must have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology underlying this process.

“Phases in a general chaotic three-coupled-laser array are

“Phases in a general chaotic three-coupled-laser array are numerically investigated. Phase attractors are firstly found to exist within corresponding basins of attraction

on the projection plane of phase differences of the three-coupled-laser array. Whether the chaos appears or not is related not only to the coupling strength but also to MCC950 supplier the initial phase differences. For a large coupling strength new phase attractors can occur. With the increase of coupling strength, the three-coupled-laser array has a great chance of resulting in a quiescent to chaotic state. Based on these results, we present the method to reach phase-locking when the coupling strength is strong.”
“The rudist bivalve genus Gorjanovicia Polsak, 1967 from Istria, Croatia, is currently known from the Coniacian/Maastrichtian of the peri-Adriatic and Balkan regions and includes 23 nominal species, defined mainly on shell ornamentation and radial bands. However, a re-appraisal of ‘Radiolites’endrissi Boehm, 1927 shows the type species of the genus Gorjanovicia, G. costata Polsak, CH5183284 nmr 1967, to be a junior synonym of Boehm’s species, which thus takes priority as the type species of Gorjanovicia. Our revision of the 24 species thus described from the literature is based on analysis of a set of 21 characters

that include the dimensions, shape and ornamentation of the right valve. Sixteen variables are defined from combinations of these 21 characters and subjected to multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) and Hill and

Smith analysis (HSA), with cluster analysis, which has allowed us to distinguish three taxonomic groups, each defined by a key species: Gorjanovicia endrissi (Boehm), SNX-5422 Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor G. ugarensis Sliskovic and G. kvarneri Polsak. Cluster analysis identifies three groups of associated variables and suggests that a limited number of characters may be used to recognize the foregoing three taxonomic entities. MCA performed on four variables (the shapes of the anterior radial band, posterior radial band and interband and the width of the anterior band relative to the posterior band) reveals the same three taxonomic groups as in the MCA based on 16 variables. We conclude that the four variables in question may thus be used as specific diagnostic characters and that the genus Gorjanovicia is thereby represented by just three species, Gorjanovicia endrissi, G. ugarensis and G. kvarneri, instead of the 24 described in the literature. Specific assemblages from the peri-Adriatic, pre-Apulian and Western Pontides regions are nearly identical, a pattern that suggests free faunal exchanges within the distributional area of the genus Gorjanovicia. The palaeobiogeographical distribution of species corresponds with a relatively narrow palaeolatitudinal range in the subtropical portion of the eastern Mediterranean Tethys.

Subjects/Methods: ICFI was constructed using data from questi

\n\nSubjects/Methods: ICFI was constructed using data from questionnaires on feeding practices and quantitative 24-h recalls (n = 1589). Multivariate analysis was used to control for household wealth and other confounding factors.\n\nResults: ICFI was positively correlated with complementary food energy intake (P < 0.0001) and MMDA (P < 0.0001). ICFI was associated with LAZ among 6-8 months children (P = 0.02). For all ages combined, there was a tendency towards an association that DNA Damage inhibitor did not reach statistical significance (P < 0.08).

Among feeding practices that formed ICFI, breastfeeding was associated with LAZ (P = 0.03) but not in the expected direction with +0.16 z-score difference in favour of non-breast-fed children. When breastfeeding was removed and introduced separately into the multivariate model, the relationship between the modified ICFI and LAZ became significant (P = 0.02).\n\nConclusions: Findings suggest that the ICFI could be a useful analytical tool, which needs however to be constructed according to its final use and which should be adapted to each context. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2009) 63, 718-724; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2008.10; published online 13 February 2008″
“Objective: Studies show that regular consumption of soybeans reduces the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. However, most of these studies recommend daily intake of 25 g or more of soy protein, an AZD3965 nmr amount considered high and not well tolerated

by patients. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of low daily intake of soybeans in oxidative stress and in components of the metabolic syndrome (MS). Subjects and methods: Forty individuals with MS were selected and divided into two groups: control group (n = 20) and soybean-treated group (n = 20), which consumed 12.95 g of soy protein for 90 days. Results: After the treatment, the soybean-treated group showed a decrease in fasting glucose and increase in serum HDL and adiponectin. Conclusion: Low intake of soy protein for 90 days, besides being well tolerated by the patients, was able to improve selleck products several parameters related to the pathophysiology

of MS. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2011;55(6):399-405″
“Objective. To develop, implement, and evaluate a targeted educational intervention focusing on smoking cessation with final-year undergraduate pharmacy students.\n\nDesign. A smoking-cessation educational workshop entitled Smoking Cessation in Pharmacy (SCIP) was designed on the principles of adult learning and implemented with a full cohort of final-year undergraduate pharmacy students at the University of Sydney. A previously validated questionnaire testing the knowledge and attitudes of respondents was administered both before and after implementation of the designed workshop to evaluate changes resulting from the intervention. Informal feedback was obtained from students.\n\nAssessment. Pre-course mean total knowledge and attitude scores calculated were 65.8+/-9.

The knowledge gaps that need to be filled in oil palm-Ganoderma m

The knowledge gaps that need to be filled in oil palm-Ganoderma molecular interactions i.e. the associations

of hypersensitive reaction (HR)-induced Blebbistatin cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) kinetics to the susceptibility of oil palm to Ganoderma spp., the interactions of phytohormones (salicylate, jasmonate and ethylene) at early and late stages of BSR, and cell wall strengthening through increased production of guaiacyl (G)-type lignin, are also discussed. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The histone demethylase Jumonji domain containing 1A (JMJDIA) demethylates H3K9 residues and thereby transactivates distinct target genes. Investigating the effect of hypoxia on JMJDIA expression, we found increased JMJDIA mRNA in different organs of rats exposed to normobaric hypoxia (8% O-2). Compared to adult samples, JMJDIA was increased in most tissues of human fetuses HKI-272 in whom oxygen supply is low compared to postnatal levels. Upregulation of JMJDIA mRNA and protein in cultured human cells exposed to hypoxia or iron scavengers in vitro was abrogated when hypoxia-inducible

factor-1 (HIF-1) signaling was blocked by siRNAs. A single pivotal hypoxia responsive element (HRE) in the promoter of the human JMJDIA gene was identified that mediates JMJDIA upregulation by hypoxia, iron scavengers, and HIF-1. These findings demonstrate that JMJDIA can be stimulated by hypoxia both in vitro and in vivo involving binding of HIF-1 to a specific HRE in the JMJDIA promoter. (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“FAT10, also known as diubiquitin, has been implicated in the regulation of diverse cellular processes, including mitosis, immune response, and apoptosis. We seek to identify FAT10-targeted proteins, an essential step in elucidating the physiological function of FAT10. To this end, human FAT10 or its non-conjugatable derivative, FAT10 Delta GG, was

overexpressed in HEK293 cells. We observed a number of high molecular weight FAT10 conjugates in cells expressing wild-type FAT10, but not in FAT10 Delta GG. The FAT10 conjugates are inducible by TNF-alpha and accumulated significantly when cells were treated selleckchem with proteasome inhibitor, MG132. Among them, tumor suppressor p53 was found to be FATylated. The p53 transcriptional activity was found to be substantially enhanced in FAT10-overexpressing cells. In addition, overexpressing FAT10 in HEK293 cells also reduced the population of p53 which cross reacted with monoclonal anti-p53 antibody, PAB240, known to recognize only the transcriptionally inactive p53. FAT10 in the nucleus was found co-localized with p53 and altered its subcellular compartmentalization. Furthermore, overexpressing FAT10 led to a reduction in the size of promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) and altered their distribution in the nucleus.

In this review, we discuss the most widely used immunohistochemic

In this review, we discuss the most widely used immunohistochemical markers of renal lineage with an emphasis on their sensitivity and specificity for

metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Subsequently, we present a variety of organ-specific differential diagnostic scenarios in which metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma might be considered and we propose immunopanels for use in each situation.”
“Background There has been an increasing interest in the health effects of long working AZD1208 manufacturer hours, but little empirical evidence to substantiate early case series suggesting an increased mortality risk. The aim of the current study is to quantify the mortality risk associated with long working hours and to see if this varies by employment relations and conditions of occupation.\n\nMethods A census-based longitudinal study of 414 949 people

aged 20-59/64 years, working at least 35 h/week, subdivided into four occupational classes (managerial/professional, intermediate, own account workers, workers in routine occupations) with linkage to deaths records over the following 8.7 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine all-cause and cause-specific mortality risk.\n\nResults Overall 9.4% of the cohort learn more worked 55 or more h/week, but this proportion was greater in the senior management and professional occupations and in those who were self-employed. Analysis of 4447 male and 1143 female deaths showed that hours worked were associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality only for HKI-272 price men working for more than 55 or more h/week in routine/semi-routine occupations [adjusted hazard ratios (adjHR) 1.31: 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11, 1.55] compared with their peers working 35-40 h/week. Their equivalent risk of death from cardiovascular disease was (adjHR 1.49: 95% CI 1.10, 2.00).\n\nConclusions These findings substantiate and add to the earlier studies indicating the deleterious impact of long working hours but also suggest that the effects are moderated by employment relations or conditions of occupation. The policy implications

of these findings are discussed.”
“Background: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a predictor of cardiovascular risk. It circulates as a pentameric protein in plasma. Recently, a potential dissociation mechanism from the disc-shaped pentameric CRP (pCRP) into single monomers (monomeric or mCRP) has been described. It has been shown that mCRP has strong pro-inflammatory effects on monocytes. To further define the role of mCRP in determining monocyte phenotype, the effects of CRP isoforms on THP-1 protein expression profiles were determined. The hypothesis to be tested was that mCRP induces specific changes in the protein expression profile of THP-1 cells that differ from that of pCRP.\n\nMethods: Protein cell lysates from control and mCRP, pCRP or LPS-treated THP-1 cells were displayed using 2-dimensional SDS PAGE and compared.

However, association of oral verrucous carcinoma with lepromatous

However, association of oral verrucous carcinoma with lepromatous GSK3235025 mouse leprosy has not been established. We report for the first time a case of verrucous

carcinoma of the buccal mucosa occurring in a leprotic patient, with brief review of literature on orofacial manifestations of leprosy.”
“Innate immune response pathways and metabolic pathways are evolutionarily conserved throughout species and are fundamental to survival. As such, the regulation of whole-body and cellular metabolism is intimately integrated with immune responses. However, the introduction of new variables to this delicate evolutionarily conserved physiological interaction can lead to deleterious consequences for organisms as a result of inappropriate immune responses. In recent decades, the prevalence and incidence of metabolic diseases associated with obesity Androgen Receptor Antagonist have dramatically increased worldwide. As a recently acquired human characteristic, obesity has exposed the critical role of innate immune pathways in multiple metabolic pathophysiological processes. Here, we review recent evidence that highlights inflammasomes as critical sensors of metabolic perturbations in multiple tissues and their role in the progression of highly prevalent metabolic diseases.”
“The multi-scale deformation and interfacial mechanical behavior of carbon nanotube fibers with multi-level

structures are investigated by experimental and theoretical methods. Multi-scale experiments including uniaxial tensile testing, in situ Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy are conducted to measure the mechanical response of

multi-level structures within the fiber under tension. A two-level interfacial mechanical model check details is then presented to analyze the interfacial bonding strength of mesoscopic bundles and microscopic nanotubes. The evolution characteristics of multi-scale deformation of the fiber are described based on experimental characterization and interfacial strength analysis. The strengthening mechanism of the fiber is further studied. Comprehensive analysis shows that the property of multi-level interfaces is a critical factor for the fiber strength and toughness. Finally, the method of improving the mechanical properties of fiber-based materials is discussed. The result can be used to guide multi-level interface engineering of carbon nanotube fibers and fiber-based composites to produce high performance materials.”
“Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) exposed to the female sex hormone estradiol show different kinds of effects including increased elasticity, activation of plasma membrane Na(+)/H(+) exchange, prostacyclin production, prevention of apoptosis and many others. The aim of this study was the systematic analysis of the immunolabelling of estrogen receptors (ERs), ER alpha and ER beta, in HUVEC after stimulation with different commercially available ER modulators and ER agonists or antagonists.

Conclusions: The results show that our method is highly effec

\n\nConclusions: The results show that our method is highly effective in finding functional modules from real microarray data. Our application on Arabidopsis leads to the discovery of the largest number of annotated Arabidopsis functional modules in the literature. Given the high statistical significance of functional enrichment and the agreement between cis-regulatory and functional annotations,

we believe our Arabidopsis gene modules can be used to predict the functions of unknown genes in Arabidopsis, and to understand the regulatory mechanisms of many genes.”
“This study investigated the feasibility of using the Cyclopamine molecular weight values of tissue Doppler imaging (TDI)-derived myocardial velocity during isovolumic relaxation (V(IR)) and myocardial acceleration during isovolumic relaxation (ACC) obtained from the left ventricular HDAC inhibitor (LV) free wall to evaluate LV relaxation in normal dogs. Seven dogs were anesthetized, and dobutamine or esmolol was infused at a rate of 5.0 and 10.0 mu g/kg/min or 100 and 500 mu g/kg/min, respectively, via a cephalic vein. The order of drug administration (dobutamine or esmolol) was assigned to each dog. Simultaneous pulsed-Doppler (PD) echocardiography, TDI and hemodynamic measurements were performed.

Compared with the baseline values, dobutamine significantly increased dP/dt min, but significantly shortened tau (tau). Similarly, esmolol significantly decreased dP/dt min, but significantly prolonged tau compared with the baseline values, dobutamine significantly increased V(IR) and A-CC, and esmolol significantly Prexasertib cost decreased V(IR) and ACC. Both dP/dt min and tau were significantly correlated with TDI-derived IVRT (r=-0.43 and 0.74), V(IR) (r=0.85 and -0.49) and ACC (r=0.84 and -0.52). These results indicate that the TDI-derived V(IR)

and ACC values obtained from the LV free wall call potentially be used to assess LV relaxation in dogs.”
“The objective this study was to evaluate the effects of incidence of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and overall incidence of pathogenic diseases (IPD) on carcass traits. Two independent populations were used. The first population included crossbred steers (GPE7; n = 642) derived from sires of 7 Bos taurus breeds: Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Angus, and Simmental. The second population included crossbred steers (GPE8; n = 621) derived from tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds and Bos indicus-influenced breeds: Beefmaster, Brangus, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano, as well as Hereford and Angus. Treatment records for BRD, infectious keratoconjunctivitis, and infectious pododermatitis were available for these populations. Incidence of BRD was treated as an independent effect.

CT or single-indicator thermodilution variables

were corr

CT or single-indicator thermodilution variables

were correlated with respiratory system compliance (Crs), PaO2/FiO(2), and Acute Physiology And Chronic Health EvaluationII (APACHE II) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores. Results: 1) TVCT and PTV were positively correlated (r = 0.8878; P = 0.0006; equation of regression line: PTV = 1.0793 x TVCT + Selleckchem Nutlin 3 179.8) as were TVI and ELWI (r = 0.9459; P smaller than 0.0001; equation of regression line: ELWI = 1.4506 x TVI-8.7792). The bias between TVCT and PTV as well as TVI and ELWI was – 277 +/- 217 and 0.62 +/- 4.56, respectively. 2) ELWI and CT distribution of lung-tissue compartments were not correlated. 3) CT or single-indicator thermodilution variables were not correlated with Crs, PaO2/FiO(2) or APACHE II or SOFA score. Conclusion: Quantitative CT analysis and single-indicator thermodilution showed good agreement in measuring pulmonary edema.”
“The long and tortuous history of an enigmatic and rare new genus and species of ripidiine wedge beetle (Ripiphoridae: Ripidiinae: Ripidiini) from Borneo is discussed and the taxon described and figured as Rhipidocyrtus muiri Falin & Engel, gen. n. and sp. n. The holotype male, and only known

specimen, was collected 107 years ago in Borneo but subsequent to this it was transferred among early researchers in the early 1900s. The specimen was dissected and many portions slide mounted, but these were disassociated from the pinned body for more than a generation. A happenstance encounter led to the rediscovery and reassociation of the body and slide-mounted abdomen and other sclerites in 2011, and to its eventual description herein. Ripidiine diversity is briefly discussed and TH-302 purchase comparisons made between Rhipidocyrtus and other members HCS assay of the subfamily.”
“Aim: Sex differences in coronary heart disease have been attributed to sex hormones, whereas the potential role of the sex chromosomes has been ignored so far. Here, we investigated the role of the sex chromosomes in causing

sex differences in myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methods and Results: We used two unique mouse models, the ‘four core genotypes’ [XX mice with ovaries (XXF) or testes (XXM) and XY mice with ovaries (XYF) or testes (XYM)] and XY* (gonadal male or female mice with one or two X chromosomes). All mice were gonadectomized (GDX). In vivo or isolated Langendorff-perfused hearts were subjected to I/R injury. The in vivo infarct size in XY mice was significantly smaller than XX mice regardless of their gonadal type (24.5 +/- 4.1% in XYF and 21.8 +/- 3.3% in XYM vs. 37.0 +/- 3.2% in XXF and 35.5 +/- 2.1% in XXM, P smaller than 0.01). Consistent with the results in vivo, the infarct size was markedly smaller and cardiac functional recovery was significantly better in XY mice compared with XX ex vivo. The mitochondrial calcium retention capacity was significantly higher in XY compared with XX mice (nmol/mg protein: XXF = 126 +/- 9 and XXM = 192 +/- 45 vs.

“Background: It is generally understood that shorter Web s

“Background: It is generally understood that shorter Web surveys GSI-IX and use of incentives result in higher response rates

in Web surveys directed to health care providers. Less is known about potential respondent preference for reduced burden as compared to increased reward.\n\nObjective: To help elicit preference for minimized burden compared to reward for completion of a survey, we observed physician preferences for shorter Web surveys compared to incentives as well as incentive preference (small guaranteed incentive compared to larger lottery incentive) accompanying an electronic request to complete a survey.\n\nMethods: This was an observational study that accompanied a large Web survey study of radiology staff, fellows, and residents at select academic medical centers in the United States. With the request to complete the survey, potential respondents were offered three options: (1) a 10-minute Web survey with the chance to win an iPad, (2) a 10-minute Web survey

with a guaranteed nominal incentive ($ PP2 molecular weight 5 amazon. com gift card), or (3) a shorter (5-7 minute) Web survey with no incentive. A total of 254 individuals responded to the Web survey request.\n\nResults: Overwhelmingly, individuals chose a longer survey accompanied by an incentive compared to a shorter survey with no incentive (85% compared to 15%, P <. 001). Of those opting for an incentive, a small, but not BTSA1 purchase significant majority chose the chance to win an iPad over a guaranteed $5 gift card (56% compared to 44%).\n\nConclusions: When given the choice, radiologists preferred a reward (either guaranteed or based on a lottery) to a less burdensome survey, indicating that researchers should focus more attention at increasing perceived benefits of completing a Web survey compared to decreasing perceived burden.”
“Objective: Accurate measurements of prevalence of “any” breastfeeding and “exclusive” breastfeeding help assess progress toward public health goals. We compared two commonly used data sources

for measuring breastfeeding rates to assess agreement.\n\nMethods: The National Immunization Survey (NIS) is used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to measure progress toward national breastfeeding goals and obtains breastfeeding outcomes retrospectively at 1935 months. The California Newborn Screen (CNS) is a contemporaneous measure of breastfeeding during birth hospitalization and measures progress toward public health goals in California. We compared results for “any breastfeeding” and “exclusive breastfeeding” for California infants in the NIS to those in the CNS using descriptive statistics.\n\nResults: Our results show that the two methods produce similar results for “any” breastfeeding at <4 days: 82.7%, 95% confidence interval (79.6%, 85.