MD microcapsules containing all tested antioxidant compounds pres

MD microcapsules containing all tested antioxidant compounds presented the same scavenging capacity than empty MD microcapsules (Table 1). Incorporation RG7420 manufacturer of apo-8′-carotenal to GA microcapsules promoted a 50%/μmol g increase in the scavenging capacity, and β-carotene contributed with less than 30%/μmol g (Table 2). The empty GA microcapsules presented a marked difference, 60%, between the ONOO− scavenging capacity in the presence

and absence of NaHCO3, but the empty MD microcapsules did not (Table 1). The GA microcapsules containing trolox were the most effective ONOO− scavengers, both in the presence and absence of NaHCO3 (Table 1). The incorporation of apo-8′-carotenal and β-carotene to GA microcapsules increased the capacity to scavenge ONOO−, without NaHCO3, in 132 and 43%/μmol g, respectively; meanwhile, when these carotenoids were incorporated to MD microcapsules, the increase was only 39%/μmol g for apo-8′-carotenal and 10%/μmol g for β-carotene.

Interestingly, when NaHCO3 was added to the reaction system, the incorporation of apo-8′-carotenal did not affect the scavenging capacity of GA microcapsules; however, in MD microcapsules, JQ1 solubility dmso the scavenging capacity raised 62%/μmol g. A similar effect was observed when apo-12′-carotenal was incorporated to MD microcapsules. The polymers used as wall materials for microencapsulation were in the past considered inert and their main functions were Flucloronide to protect and to control the liberation of the encapsulated compounds. However, recent studies have shown that some polymers used as wall materials, such as gum arabic, agar-agar, alginic acid, guar and xanthan gums, possess antioxidant capacity (Faria et al., 2010, Montenegro et al., 2007 and Trommer and Nerbert, 2005). For example, microencapsulated GA was able to delay photo-oxidation in skimmed

milk by efficiently quenching the riboflavin triplet state (Montenegro et al., 2007). The previous study carried out by Faria et al. (2010) also showed that the empty microcapsules of GA and MD were able to quench singlet oxygen. In the present study, the empty microcapsules also showed capacity to scavenge all the studied ROS and RNS in a concentration dependent manner. In general, when the capacity to scavenge ROS and RNS was compared, considering the microcapsule concentration in mg of biopolymer per ml of water, GA showed to be a more potent ROS and RNS scavenger than MD. GA is a complex and variable mixture of arabinogalactan oligosaccharides, polysaccharides and glycoproteins, resulting in a high molecular weight biopolymer (MW ≈ 350 kDa) (Renard, Lavenant-Gourgeon, Ralet, & Sanchez, 2006), whilst MD (MW ≈ 1 kDa) is a mixture of short polymers of d-glucose (3–20 units), in which the α-d-glucopyranosyl monomers are joined by (1 → 4) linkages to give linear chains with a certain degree of chain branching due to (1 → 6) bonding (Kennedy, Noy, Stead, & White, 1985).

detected in the DGGE analysis and the increase of this population

detected in the DGGE analysis and the increase of this population in the JBOVS diet intake group was related to the acetate production process in the intestines. In addition, members of the genus Lactobacillus including L. murinus, which is well known to produce lactate, are predominant inhabitants of the intestinal tract of mammals, where they are thought to play an important role in the maintenance of colonisation resistance and prevention of overgrowth of enteric pathogens

( Okada et al., 2013). In addition, a recent study reported the increase in live L. murinus and lactate production was enhanced epithelial cell proliferation ( Okada et al., 2013). Therefore, it was suggested that the A-1210477 cost increase in L. murinus in the JBOVS diet intake group

was related to the lactate production in our in vivo experiments. Taken together, the effect of JBOVS on the intestinal environment was to increase the production and population levels of these metabolites and bacteria, which in turn, might improve the intestinal immunity and contribute to the maintenance Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor of homeostasis in the host-microbial ecosystem. This study identified JBOVS as a candidate prebiotic food by an in vitro screening method. The approach described herein should be useful as a screen for potential prebiotic foods and for estimating the effects of foods and their components on host-microbial symbiotic ecosystems. Although the mechanisms responsible for the JBOVS benefits remain largely unclear, our preliminary data suggested that the systemic effects on mice were observed as increases in potassium, boron, ethanolamine, and N-acetyl-d-glycoprotein levels in excreted urine, and decreases in succinate, creatine, and hypotaurine levels in excreted urine ( Figs. S5–S7 and Text S1). Future work will provide important information about the systemic and targeted effects of candidate prebiotic foods screened by our in vitro evaluation method on host-microbial symbiotic systems in mammals including human, and should serve as a useful diagnostic for personal and public health purposes.

In this study, Thiamet G we performed an in vitro evaluation method using the metabolic dynamics of microbial community as an indicator for screening candidate prebiotic foods. The JBOVS, JBO, and onion were nominated as candidate prebiotic foods. In addition, characterisation of chemical and mineral compositions in the JBOVS revealed that sugar components, especially fructose-based carbohydrates were present in significant quantities in the JBOVS. Furthermore, validation of the effects of the JBOVS intake on mice was observed as increases in the L. murinus and Bacteroidetes sp. populations and acetate and lactate production levels in the intestine, which was largely consistent with the results from our in vitro incubation method. Our in vitro evaluation approach should be useful as a rapid and simple screening tool for potential prebiotic foods.

1 °C; and dryness index – DI: 200 mm, humid The summed GDD resul

1 °C; and dryness index – DI: 200 mm, humid. The summed GDD results for the period of the phenological cycle (budburst – harvest) of the grapevines characterised São Joaquim – SC as “Region I” (<1389 GDD), that is a “cold region” in terms of the Winkler Regions. It is believed that the São Joaquim regional characteristics (orographic, climate) are favourable for the cultivation of vines and consequently the production of high quality wines. Falcão, de Revel, SB431542 mouse Rosier, and Bordignon-Luiz (2008b) verified these characterisations, mainly through obtaining good results for the volatile composition of Cabernet Sauvignon wines produced

in this region. In this study, an HPLC-DAD–MS method was developed to characterise and quantify the main monomers (catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin and epicatechin gallate), PA dimers (B1 and B2) and

their phloroglucinol find more adducts in the Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Sangiovese and Syrah wines, from 2006 and 2007 vintages, from São Joaquim – SC, Brazil. The ability of these wines to scavenge DPPH and ABTS radicals and to inhibit lipid peroxidation in vitro (TBARS – thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) were also evaluated, as well as their correlation with the flavan-3-ol composition. All chromatographic solvents were HPLC grade and were purchased from Carlo Erba (Rodano, Italy). Pure, HPLC grade (+)-catechin (C), (−)-epicatechin (EC), (−)-gallocatechin (GC), (−)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and (−)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) were obtained from Sigma (Steinheim, Germany). The PAs B1 [(−)-epicatechin-(4β-8)–(+)-catechin] Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II and B2 [(−)-epicatechin-(4β-8)–(−)-epicatechin] were obtained from Extrasynthese (Genay, France). Phloroglucinol was purchased from Aldrich (Steinheim, Germany). Folin–Ciocalteau reagent,

vanillin, 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), 5,5′-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were purchased from Sigma–Aldrich Co. (St. Louis, USA). Wines from the 2006 and 2007 vintages of the Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Sangiovese and Syrah varieties sampled from São Joaquim, Santa Catarina State (SC), Brazil, were analysed. Experimental plots of varieties were delimited in young commercial vineyards and used to make the wines. The region of São Joaquim is located in Santa Catarina State at altitudes of 1200–1400 m, coordinates 28° latitude and 49° longitude, and these are the highest altitudes of vineyards in Brazil. According to the USDA classifications the soil of this region is inceptisol, that is, a well drained soil with a soft friable consistency, a high capacity for water retention and absence of stones (Falcão et al., 2008a).

PBMCs were placed in round-bottom 96-well plates (approximately 1

PBMCs were placed in round-bottom 96-well plates (approximately 105 cells per well), stained for 30 min at 4 °C, washed twice with stain buffer with centrifugation at 250 g for 5 min, resuspended in 100 μL stain buffer and analyzed immediately. Monocytes were selectively gated based on their characteristic forward scatter and side Galunisertib price scatter properties.

The expression of CD11b, CD31, CD62L and CD49d on monocytes was quantified as percentage of positive cells from each sample. Associations between the indoor and outdoor pollutant levels were assessed by Pearson correlation coefficients. Linear regression models with the Generalized Estimating Equation approach (GEE) were used to estimate the association between log-transformed health outcomes and indoor and outdoor exposure variables, accounting for correlation between individuals living at the same address. Metformin Separate models were fitted for each outcome, adjusted for age, gender,

BMI and in sensitivity analyses for intake of vasoactive drugs or statins or use of candles as categorical variable. Additionally, the associations between the exposure and MVF were assessed for a subgroup of study participants who did not take any drugs (n = 65), adjusted for age, gender, and BMI. Furthermore, we included adjustment for the time the home was unoccupied (on average 20% of the total time) as an estimate of time spent outside in sensitivity analyses of the significant associations found. Results were expressed as percentage change with 95% confidence intervals of an outcome per increase in a pollutant’s interquartile range (IQR) concentration. We used the IQRs in the analysis of the indoor and the outdoor data pollutant to allow direct comparison of effect estimates. A value of p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Leukotriene-A4 hydrolase Analyses were performed using STATA software (version 12, StataCorp LP, College Station, Texas, USA). Table 2 outlines the results from the 2-day indoor air monitoring of the 58 residences for PNC, mean particle diameter PM2.5 and the level of

endotoxin, fungi and bacteria levels in dust collected for 4 weeks. The levels of the indoor PNC have recently been reported (Bekö et al., 2013). The ambient air PNC, mean particle diameter, PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations, monitored at an urban background station in the same 2-day period preceding the measurements of health outcomes are also summarized in Table 2. There was a significant positive correlation between indoor PNC and PM2.5, whereas there were inverse positive correlations between indoor PNC and outdoor PM2.5 and PM10 levels, although these were not significant. The average indoor PNC levels over the whole monitoring period were strongly associated with the estimated exposure related to candle burning as source events.

When gathering your family in your house, for example, it is impo

When gathering your family in your house, for example, it is important to make sure that your own children are there: replacing them with the neighbor’s will not do. Despite the fact that the experimenter was calling the set of puppets a ‘family’, several pieces of evidence

OSI-906 nmr indicate that children did not interpret the goal of the present task as being restricted to the individuals presented on the tree at the start of the trial. Crucially, when tested with small sets, they readily placed all puppets on the tree, even when one of them was a newcomer. Furthermore, with large sets they failed to solve the task following the addition or subtraction of a branch, despite the fact that the family of puppets did not change in this condition. find more Thus, the pattern of findings obtained with large sets evidently reflects limitations to children’s processing of these sets, rather

than their understanding of the task. Perhaps children’s performance with large sets was constrained by limitations of processing resources, such as limitations in working memory4: the children may have failed to remember all the relevant pieces of information, or to process this information appropriately. Because children succeeded with the identity-preserving events and in the absence of any transformation, we know SDHB that they could remember one-to-one relations between branches and puppets and reproduce such a relation at the end of a trial. Furthermore, because they succeeded at tracking additions

and subtractions with small sets, we know that they could remember and process set transformation events. However, it is possible that the joint requirements of remembering both a one-to-one mapping and a transformation exceeded the limits on children’s memory and attention. Alternatively, even if children could remember all the relevant information, they might have failed to combine these two pieces of information to predict the final mapping between branches or puppets. Crucially, our task was designed so that there were strategies available for working around any limitations in children’s processing resources. First, in the substitution events, children could have succeeded by focusing on the initial state of one-to-one correspondence and discarding the transformation as having no effect. Children were likely to discover this strategy, however, only if they understood that a subtraction of one is reversed by an addition of one.

This result supports the extractivists’ statement that they avoid

This result supports the extractivists’ statement that they avoid establishing

crops or pastures in forests with BN trees or other valuable extractive resources. Second-cycle sites showed a higher average regeneration density, but it is usually after the third cultivation cycle that the BN tree density becomes substantial. The impressive BN regeneration density at some of the sites with long histories of agricultural use (we registered up to 104 trees ha−1) is perhaps better explained by a combination of factors. At the end of each SC cycle, the mature crop is an attractive source of GSK126 solubility dmso food to the agoutis (Balée, 1994). This phase of the crop cycle coincides with site abandonment for forest succession. The dense and entangled colonizing vegetation shelters the natural disperser activity of the agoutis (Silvius

and Fragoso, 2003) and is also a favorable microhabitat for seed and seedling establishment (Peña-Claros, 2001 and Uhl, 1987). The BN seedling has a large nutrient reserve and may survive for several years under low-light conditions (Zuidema et al., 1999) but it depends on large forest gaps to thrive (Myers et al., 2000). This light-gap condition also occurs in fallows, as measured by Cotta et al. (2008). However, it is the MAPK inhibitor frequency of SC disturbances in addition to the species’ resprouting capability that ultimately results in the higher BN densities of fallows relative to BN densities in the nearby undisturbed forest. Past agricultural Tolmetin use did not appear in the PCA because it was included as a grouping variable. However, this factor directly influenced the regeneration density observed (Fig. 2b). The higher light intensities offered by pastures may favor the growth of BN seedlings (Zuidema et al., 1999), but the frequency with which pastures are burned is incompatible with forest succession processes. Burning degrades the soil fertility and homogenizes the environment, eliminating seedling-establishment micro-sites and making seed dispersal from the surrounding forest improbable (Uhl, 1987 and Uhl et al., 1988). The frequency of burning cycles, the absence of

fallow intervals, and the presence of grazing animals tend to prevent vegetation regrowth. These properties of pastures probably discourage Dasyprocta dispersal activity because we rarely found gnawed-open fruits in the pastures, even though they were abundant in SC fallows and crops. This finding reinforces our assumption that the successful colonization of SC sites by BN trees depends as much on the disturbance events as on the consecutive fallow periods. The fact that pastures established in sites previously used for SC presented a regeneration density almost as high as those sites exclusively used for itinerant agriculture does not invalidate this conclusion. To show this argument correct, we must consider the characteristics of the regeneration that occurred in pastures established in areas previously used for plant crops.

The powders of EWG and ERG dissolved in distilled water uniformly

The powders of EWG and ERG dissolved in distilled water uniformly in less than 10 seconds, whereas the EG and RG solutions needed strong shaking for about 1 minute until the powder dissolved well. Apparently, the ERG powder had the best dispersibility. Table 2 also exhibits that the extrudate powder was darker and had higher a and b values than their corresponding control (unextruded) samples. The ERG had the lowest L (75.39) and

highest a (3.22) and b (23.81) values. During the extrusion process, these color changes were caused by nonenzymatic browning and sensitive pigments destruction [29]. Low hardness, which is also a favored property of extrudates, was observed in ERG (Table 2), that is, the breaking strength of ERG was lower than EWG. Previous studies GABA cancer also reported that the breaking strength was strongly influenced by cell structure and protein content. Increased protein content in raw material produced a more rigid network, resulting in higher resistance to shear [30]. There was no significant difference in elastic modulus between EWG and ERG. Fig. 3 illustrates the cross-sectional microstructure of EWG and ERG. The magnification used was 35× and 150×. EWG showed a homogeneous surface and less porosity, indicating that the starch granules were disrupted, whereas ERG had a rough and irregular surface, which could be an indication of the dextrinization of starch. Also, the ERG showed a great number of air cells with

a nonuniform air cell distribution and thinner cell walls compared with the EWG. Apparently, it is speculated that the extrudate microstructure (air cells

number, air cells size, cell walls thickness) could be related to expansion ratio and breaking strength. In our study, the results were consistent with the mechanical data (breaking strength)—namely, the more air cell and the thinner the cell walls, the lower the shear force (breaking strength). The microstructure was found to be dependent on the combination of the extrusion conditions (feed moisture, barrel temperature), cellular structure, and the type of protein and starch molecules. The crude saponin and ginsenoside contents of ginseng samples are presented in Table 3. According to the calculations, the total ginsenoside contents were found to be 9.66 mg/g, 9.91 mg/g, 16.53 mg/g, and 15.66 mg/g for WG, EWG, RG, and ERG, respectively. Extrusion cooking was observed to have no significant effect on the ginsenoside in this work. The total ginsenoside content of RG was about 1.7 times higher than that of WG. The ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 and 20(R)-Rg3 were present in RG and ERG but not in WG and EWG. Sun et al [31] reported that extensive conversion of original ginsenosides in WG to new degradation compounds in RG occurred during the steaming process, leading to different ginsenoside profiles between WG and RG. Du et al [32] reported that the degree of reduction in malonyl ginsenosides was 65.

Volumes of transfection mixes were adjusted to the 24-well plate

Volumes of transfection mixes were adjusted to the 24-well plate format. Briefly, for each well 1 μL Lipofectamine 2000 was diluted with 49 μL OptiMEM medium (Invitrogen/LifeTechnologies Austria, Vienna, Austria), and after 5 min of incubation, 50 μL diluted Lipofectamine 2000 was mixed with 50 μL of a specific siRNA diluted in OptiMEM. Transfection conditions were otherwise as described under 2.5. After 24 h

of incubation, medium was exchanged and cells were infected with Ad5 at an multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.01 TCID50/cell, and total RNA was isolated at 24 h post-infection using an RNeasy Mini® Kit (QIAGEN). Residual DNA was removed with RQ1 DNase (Promega), and reverse transcription was carried out using the High Capacity cDNA Reverse Transcription Kit (Applied Biosystems). Expression levels of the E1A-12S, E1A-13S, DNA polymerase, pTP, IVa2, hexon, and protease genes were determined by TaqMan CX-5461 real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), using the LightCycler 480 Probes Navitoclax price master mix (Roche Diagnostics) and primer/probe sets specific for E1A-13S (E1A 289R-cDNA-f1 5′-GCATGTTTGTCTACAGTCCTGTGTC-3′, E1A 289R-cDNA-r1 5′-GGCGTCTCAGGATAGCAGGC-3′, and E1A 289R-cDNA-p1 5′-AGGCTCCGGTTCTGGCTCGGG-3′), E1A-12S (E1A 12S-cDNA-f1 5′-AGGATGAAGAGGGTCCTGTGTCT-3′,


Hex-cDNA-r1 5′-AGGTACTCCGAGGCGTCCTG-3′, and Hex-cDNA-p1 5′-ACCACTGCGGCATCATCGAAGGG-3′), and protease (Prot-cDNA-f1 5′-TCACAGTCGCAAGTCTTTGACG-3′, Prot-cDNA-r1 5′-GCGGCAGCTGTTGTTGATG-3′, and Prot-cDNA-p1 5′-CCGAGAAGGGCGTGCGCAGGTA-3′). The specificity of the primers employed (i.e., covered exon–exon junctions) enabled them to discriminate between overlapping transcripts or transcripts originating from the (+) or (−) strand, respectively. Ad5 gene expression levels were normalized to GAPDH expression levels, which were previously proven to remain unchanged upon Ad5 infection under the selected experimental conditions. GAPDH expression was determined with the primer/probe set GAPDH-f1 5′-TGCACCACCAACTGCTTAGC-3′, GAPDH-r1 5′-GGCATGGACTGTGGTCATGAG-3′, and GAPDH-p1 5′-CCTGGCCAAGGTCATCCATGACAACTT-3′. All q PCR assays were set up in 96-well plates and contained 1× LightCycler 480 Probes master mix (Roche Diagnostics, Vienna, Austria), 500 nM of forward and reverse primers, each, 100 nM of probe, and 1 μL of cDNA in a total volume of 20 μL.

g , Rathburn et al , 2009)? I use the existence of beaver meadows

g., Rathburn et al., 2009)? I use the existence of beaver meadows along headwater mountain streams in the Colorado Front Range to illustrate some of the ideas proposed in the previous section. Beaver (Castor canadensis in North America and C. fiber in Eurasia)

are considered ecosystem engineers that change, maintain, or create habitats by altering the availability of biotic and abiotic resources for themselves and other species ( Rosell et al., 2005). The most important ecosystem engineering undertaken by beaver is the construction and maintenance of low dams of wood and sediment. Beaver build dams on even very steep (>7% gradient) and narrow rivers, but where stream gradient is less than 3% and the valley bottom is at least two or three DAPT times the active channel width, numerous closely spaced beaver dams can create beaver meadows ( Fig. 3). click here Dams vary from 7 to 74 per km along low gradient streams, with a typical value of 10 dams per km ( Pollock et al., 2003). Beaver meadows – large, wet meadows associated with overbank flooding caused by numerous beaver dams along a stream – were first described in Rocky Mountain National Park by Ives (1942), but the term is now more widely used. A beaver dam creates a channel

obstruction and backwater that enhances the magnitude, duration and spatial extent of overbank flow (Westbrook et al., 2006). Shallow flows across topographically irregular floodplains concentrate in depressions and this, along with excavation of a network of small, winding ‘canals’ across the floodplain by beaver (Olson and Hubert, 1994), promotes an anabranching channel planform (John and Klein, 2004). Overbank flows enhance infiltration, hyporheic exchange, and a high riparian water Thiamet G table (Westbrook et al., 2006 and Briggs et al., 2012). Attenuation of flood

peaks through in-channel and floodplain storage promotes retention of finer sediment and organic matter (Pollock et al., 2007) and enhances the diversity of aquatic and riparian habitat (Pollock et al., 2003 and Westbrook et al., 2011). By hydrologically altering biogeochemical pathways, beaver influence the distribution, standing stocks, and availability of nutrients (Naiman et al., 1994). Beaver ponds and meadows disproportionately retain carbon and other nutrients (Naiman et al., 1986, Correll et al., 2000 and Wohl et al., 2012). As long as beaver maintain their dams, the associated high water table favors riparian deciduous species such as willow (Salix spp.), cottonwood (Populus spp.) and aspen (Populus spp.) that beaver prefer to eat, and limits the encroachment of coniferous trees and other more xeric upland plants. Beaver thus create (i) enhanced lateral connectivity between the channel and floodplain, enhanced vertical connectivity between surface and ground water, and limited longitudinal connectivity because of multiple dams ( Burchsted et al.

In the Frome a GSSI SIR3000 with 200 MHz antennae was used, colle

In the Frome a GSSI SIR3000 with 200 MHz antennae was used, collecting data with a survey wheel and using a 5 gain point signal amplification. Dating used both radiocarbon AMS and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). AMS dates were calibrated using Stuiver et al. (1998) and where possible identified macroscopic plant remains were dated. In both

catchments the data were input to a GIS model (ArcGIS version 8.3) along with Landmap Ordnance Survey data with a 10 m posting. More detailed satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) data with a 5 m posting relief data were GDC-0973 in vitro obtained for part of the Frome catchment in the lower reaches of the valley in order to create a bare-earth DTM. Other data were taken from published GSK J4 order sources and archaeological data were taken from the historic environment register (HER) of each area. Valley cross-sections were logged, augered and cored at 7 locations from the headwaters to the confluence with the river Lugg (Fig. 4). As can be seen from the long-section, which uses the maximum valley thickness in each reach, the valley fill is dominated by a thick (up to 5 m) silty-sand unit (Fig. 5). This unit which was clearly seen on the GPR transects overlies blue-grey clays with organics and in places sand and gravel. As can be seen from Fig. 5a the fill thickens dramatically between Sections 3 and 4 and this corresponds

with the confluence of a tributary which drains an area of the north west of the catchment which has stagnogleyic argillic brown earth soils that are particularly erodible. At the base of the over-thickened superficial valley unit was a series of small palaeochannels and hydromorphic soils (Fig. 6) which were not

truncated. One NADPH-cytochrome-c2 reductase particularly prominent palaeochannel at Yarkhill (Section 5) has started to infill with the silty sand of the superficial unit. From these channel fills plant macrofossils were obtained and AMS dated (Table 2). The AMS dates all fall within the period 4440–3560 PB (2490–1610 cal BCE at 95% confidence). This time window corresponds with the British late Neolithic and early Bronze Age. Both pastoral and arable agriculture started here in the early Neolithic (c. 4000 BCE) but it was restricted and sporadic and did not really expand until the late Neolithic (Stevens and Fuller, 2012). In order to test the hypothesis that farming within this catchment followed this trajectory and was therefore co-incident with this major stratigraphic discontinuity we undertook pollen and spore analysis on three bank sections and two cores. Only a summary is given here with more details in Brown et al. (2011). The results showed that the organic rich unit at Sections 4 and 5 was deposited during a period of significant change in the vegetation of the floodplain and adjacent slopes.