“A 56-year-old woman was referred

“A 56-year-old woman was referred compound screening assay to our hospital due to fever and cholestatic liver

dysfunction. Her eosinophil count was normal and she had no abdominal pain or neurological manifestations. We performed a liver biopsy and found fibrinoid necrosis of the hepatic artery with granulomatous reaction and eosinophilic infiltration in the portal area in the liver. Later, sensory abnormalities of the arms and legs appeared and the eosinophil count increased. Serum immunoglobulin E and immunoglobulin G4 were elevated and rheumatoid factor was strongly positive. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed no abnormality of the bile duct and pancreatic duct. We made a diagnosis of Churg–Strauss syndrome and began corticosteroid treatment. Fever and liver function immediately improved. In the present patient, Churg–Strauss syndrome manifested first in the liver, before hypereosinophilia and neural manifestations. We believe that Churg–Strauss syndrome is an autoimmune liver disease, and it is important to

recognize that the liver may be involved in Churg–Strauss syndrome. “
“Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) can be complicated by systemic sclerosis (SSc) and, more specifically, limited cutaneous SSc (lcSSc), which was previously called CREST syndrome. Moreover, combined PBC and SSc has been described in many case reports. Although neither the etiology of PBC nor that of SSc has been elucidated, some genetic and immunological factors are known to be shared. Both disorders are autoimmune fibrotic diseases characterized by increased levels of profibrotic cytokines transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and interleukin-6, which have Cobimetinib solubility dmso recently been suggested to influence T-helper 17 cells and regulatory T cells involved in acquired

immunity. lcSSc is accompanied by CREST symptoms, although complete CREST cases are rare, with relatively high prevalence of Raynaud’s phenomenon, sclerodactyly and telangiectasia, and lower prevalence of calcinosis and esophageal dysmotility. Because patients with anticentromere antibody positive PBC–SSc are at a high risk of developing portal hypertension, particular attention should be paid to the management of gastroesophageal Rapamycin varices. In addition, the management of SSc-related non-hepatic disorders, such as pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, heart disorder, infection and malignancy, is also important for improved outcomes. Because PBC is often complicated by rheumatic disease, hepatologists should keep the possibility of systemic disorder in mind when examining PBC patients. “
“Background and Aim:  Biliary stricture may be benign or malignant and causes obstructive jaundice. Brush cytology is a simple technique for diagnosing the cause of biliary stricture; however, its sensitivity has been reported to be low. A technique that comprises diagnosing the cause of stricture with a satisfactory sensitivity and relieving jaundice is required.

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