(A) A stretch upstream of the pHW121 repA gene is similar to repl

(A) A stretch upstream of the A-1331852 datasheet pHW121 repA gene is similar to replication origins of pC191/pUB110-family plasmids and the E. coli bacteriophage öX174. The experimentally determined

cleavage sites of pC194 and öX174 Lorlatinib are indicated by vertical arrows. (B) pHW104 and pHW126 are members of poorly characterised families of rolling circle plasmids. The G+C contents calculated for pAM10.6 and pM3 are based on partial sequences. (C) Evidence that pHW126 replicates via the rolling circle mechanism. Constructs containing two origins of replication of pHW126 and, as control, pHW15 were grown E. coli INVαF’ for 40 generations. Subsequently DNA was isolated and analysed by restriction digestion with HindIII (similar results were obtained for digests with SalI; data not shown). The expected positions of constructs containing one or two origins are indicated by arrows. The deletion of the second origin was confirmed by sequencing buy Vismodegib (data not shown). The size of the marker bands is given in kb. (D) G+C contents of small plasmids and their hosts are correlated. The trendline was calculated from 124 enterobacterial plasmid sequences retrieved from the

Genome Project Database http://​www.​ncbi.​nlm.​nih.​gov/​genomes. For strains with unavailable genomic G+C contents the mean value of the species according to Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology [59] was used. Plasmids from Rahnella are shown as filled circles while plasmids from other Enterobacteriaceae are shown as open circles. pHW104 showed similarity to members of a poorly studied plasmid family (Fig. 4B). A 298 amino acid protein of pHW104 showed more than 70% identity to the putative replication protein of pVCG1.2 and 22.5% identity to RepA from pAM10.6.

The involvement of the latter in replication has been proven experimentally [46]. In addition pHW104 comprised a ColE1-type mobilisation system (Fig. 5A) and two open reading frames of unknown function. Figure 5 Alignments of transfer origin Oxymatrine ( oriT ) nic sites of the ColE1-superfamily (A) and the pMV158-superfamily (B). Experimentally determined nic-cleavage sites are indicated by vertical arrows. Inverted repeats involved in formation of a stem-loop-stem structure are underlined. Other codes as in Fig. 2. pHW126, the smallest plasmid found in the genus Rahnella, belonged to a novel, yet uncharacterised class of plasmids. It consisted of only 2886 bp and possessed two ORFs. ORF1 showed similarity to relaxases of the pMV158-superfamily mediating plasmid mobilisation. The characteristic motif HxDExxPHxH, as well as an invariant Arg residue in the N-terminus, were present [42] and a putative oriT could be identified approximately 100 bp upstream of orf1 (Fig. 5B). Thus orf1 was named mob.

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