After quantifying individual variation in the propensity to attribute incentive salience to a food cue, rats were trained to selfadminister
cocaine in the absence of an explicit conditional stimulus. We then assessed motivation for cocaine by: (1) performance on a progressive ratio schedule, and (2) the degree to which a cocaine ‘prime’ reinstated cocaine-seeking following extinction of self-administration behavior. We found that rats prone to attribute incentive salience to a food cue worked harder for cocaine, and showed more robust cocaine-induced reinstatement. We conclude that there is considerable individual variation in the motivational properties of cocaine itself, and this can be predicted by the propensity
to attribute incentive salience to reward cues. Neuropsychopharmacology (2011) 36, 1668-1676; doi:10.1038/npp.2011.48; selleck chemicals llc published online 6 April 2011″
“Long terminal repeat 5-Fluoracil research buy (LTR) retrotransposons are closely related to retroviruses and, as such, are important models for the study of viral integration and target site selection. The transposon Tf1 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe integrates with a strong preference for the promoters of polymerase II (Pol II)-transcribed genes. Previous work in vivo with plasmid-based targets revealed that the patterns of insertion were promoter specific and highly reproducible. To determine which features of promoters are recognized by Tf1, we studied integration Guanylate cyclase 2C in a promoter that has been characterized. The promoter of fbp1 has two upstream activating sequences, UAS1 and UAS2. We found that integration was targeted to two windows, one 180 nucleotides (nt) upstream and the other 30 to 40 nt downstream of UAS1. A series of deletions
in the promoter showed that the integration activities of these two regions functioned autonomously. Integration assays of UAS2 and of a synthetic promoter demonstrated that strong promoter activity alone was not sufficient to direct integration. The factors that modulate the transcription activities of UAS1 and UAS2 include the activators Atf1p, Pcr1p, and Rst2p as well as the repressors Tup11p, Tup12p, and Pka1p. Strains lacking each of these proteins revealed that Atf1p alone mediated the sites of integration. These data indicate that Atf1p plays a direct and specific role in targeting integration in the promoter of fbp1.”
“There is evidence supporting a role for the D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) locus in schizophrenia. This study aimed to determine the relationship of five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the DAO gene identified as promising schizophrenia risk genes (rs4623951, rs2111902, rs3918346, rs3741775, and rs3825251) to acoustic startle, prepulse inhibition (PPI), working memory, and personality dimensions.