Brains were washed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (with Ca++/Mg++) and meninges were thoroughly peeled off and discarded. White matter was carefully removed. The grey matter was collected in HEPES-buffered MEM containing 10% foetal calf serum (MEM-H 10% FCS), Venetoclax price forced through a 50 ml syringe to produce a slurry, and mixed with an equal volume of MEM-H 10%. Tissue was gently homogenised in a glass Wheaton Dounce tissue grinder (Jencons Scientific Ltd., Leighton Buzzard, UK) (89–127 μm clearance, 15 strokes;
25–76 μm clearance 15 strokes) and sequentially filtered, first through 150 μm nylon mesh, then through 60 μm nylon mesh. Microvessel fragments trapped on the 150 and 60 μm meshes were kept separate and digested at 37 °C for 1 h in medium M199 containing 10% FCS, 223 U/mg collagenase, 211 U/mg trypsin and 2108 U/mg DNase with continuous agitation. Microvessels were washed off the meshes with the enzyme mixture, centrifuged for 5 min at 240g at 4 °C to remove enzyme, then resuspended in MEM-H 10% FCS and centrifuged again; the resulting vessel fractions were kept separate as ‘150s’ and ‘60s’, the latter giving higher TEER. The ‘60s’ were used for all experiments described here. Digested fragments were resuspended in 10% DMSO in foetal calf serum, brought slowly to −80 °C and stored in liquid nitrogen. Six pig brains gave 12 1 ml aliquots of ‘60s’. Capillary fragments
were thawed and resuspended in plating medium consisting of DMEM with 10% BPDS with 100 U/ml penicillin, 100 μg/ml streptomycin, 2 mM glutamine, 125 μg/ml heparin, with 4 μg/ml puromycin to kill contaminating
cells, especially pericytes (Perrière et selleck compound al., 2005). One aliquot was plated into two T75 flasks coated with lab-prepared rat tail collagen (Strom and Michalopoulos, 1982) and 7.5 μg/ml fibronectin, and grown to 70–80% confluence. Cells were detached by brief trypsinisation (500 BAEE units trypsin and 0.47 mM EDTA.4Na in HBSS without Ca2+ or Mg2+), then centrifuged at 360g for 5 min. The pellet of these first passage (P1) cells was resuspended selleck kinase inhibitor in plating medium containing DMEM, 10% BPDS, 100 U/ml penicillin, 100 μg/ml streptomycin, 2 mM glutamine and 125 μg/ml heparin. Cells were seeded onto collagen/fibronectin coated Transwell-Clear inserts at a density of 1×105 cells/cm2 or at 1×104 cells/well in 96-well plates for functional studies and grown for 2–3 day until confluent. The medium was changed to serum-free medium supplemented with 550 nM hydrocortisone ( Hoheisel et al., 1998) and the cells were treated with 250 μM pCPT-cAMP and 17.5 μM RO-20-1724 ( Rubin et al., 1991); these supplements helped to improve differentiation of BBB properties, especially tight junction maturation ( Förster et al., 2005). PBECs were used in experiments 24 h after this medium change. The quality of the model in terms of cell growth was assessed according to the time the cultures took to become confluent.