FMR, as a complication of LV dilation and systolic dysfunction, can
further aggravate LV volumetric overload and exacerbate left atrial (LA) pressure and volume overload, which will set up a vicious cycle of LV remodeling. Several studies revealed that the presence of FMR in heart failure was an independent predictor of worse survival.54),55) In addition, a dose-response relationship was observed that a 23% increased risk of death Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical associated with the change from no FMR to mild FMR as well as the change from mild to moderate or severe FMR.54) The basic mechanism of FMR is believed to be the mismatch between increased mitral leaflet selleck products tethering due to the outward displacement of papillary muscles and reduced closing Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical force caused by LV systolic dysfunction.56) Furthermore, multiple factors are suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of this force imbalance, including LV remodeling, leaflet tenting, annular dilation and dysfunction, as well as mechanical dyssynchrony. Consequently, these changes lead to the deformation of the mitral valve apparatus and reduction in the coaptation
area of the leaflets. In echocardiographic studies, intraventricular mechanical dyssynchrony was found to be an important contributor to FMR. First of all, LV systolic dyssynchrony reduces the efficiency of contraction, resulting in decreased closing forces Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical which worsened reduced leaflet coaptation and increased valve tenting. Secondly, uncoordinated contraction of the LV segments adjacent to the papillary muscles may increase mitral leaflet tethering and cause mal-alignment of the leaflet scallops leading to incomplete closure.57) Soyama et al.58) showed in 32 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical patients with dilated cardiomyopathy that the presence of FMR correlated with a significant delay in mechanical activity between the LV segments supporting the lateral and medial papillary muscle, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical as assessed by the difference in the time to peak systolic myocardial
strain. Thirdly, LV mechanical dyssynchrony leads to changes in the mitral valve geometry and kinematics heptaminol that may induce FMR. In animal models, a more widely opened mitral valve at end-diastole with delayed and dyssynchronous mitral valve closure was created by the RV apical pacing.59) The dyssynchronous contraction of the LV basal segments, attributable to the loss of mitral annular contraction, increase in systolic annular area and presence of mitral leaflet tethering, may worsen mitral regurgitation.60) Therefore, in a cross-sectional study which prospectively enrolled 136 CHF patients with LV ejection fraction < 50% and more than mild FMR, Liang et al.61) included variables of mitral valve deformation, LV global and regional remodeling, LV contractility, mitral annular size and function, and LV mechanical dyssynchrony for multivariate logistic regression analysis.