Germination and initial development tests were performed using Meyer’s solution containing copper sulphate at concentrations of 0 (control), 1, 5, 10, 50 and 100 mg L-1. The experiment was conducted in a growth chamber at 25 +/- 1 degrees C for 28 days, with a 12/12-hour light/dark cycle and a photon flux density of 100 mu mol m(-2) s(-1). The lowest germination rate (6%) was observed at 100 mg L-1. Primary root growth was significantly reduced at >=
10 mg L-1. Secondary leaves of sporophytes grown in concentrations >= 5 mg L-1 were progressively shorter than were those formed by the control plants. We conclude that the release of pollutants containing copper into the natural habitats of R. diphyllum can cause phytotoxicity, threatening the establishment of populations and worsening the already PF-03084014 vulnerable conservation status of this species.”
“Disasters are the events which devastate human lives, properties and natural ecosystems; cyclones are frequent events in tropical countries which have adverse impacts on coastal areas. The present study evaluates the impact of cyclone Lehar post-disaster in the South Andaman Island using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing techniques. Cyclone Lehar originated in the Andaman Sea and had a major impact on the South Andaman Island. Digital elevation model
was used to create elevation and slope maps of the study area. These maps were used to study the impacts of floods, landslides, S63845 mouse storm surges and runoff. Land-use and land-cover features were mapped and overlaid with
this model for preparing the vulnerability map for various outcomes of the cyclone. Preliminary impact assessments were made in these identified vulnerable areas www.selleckchem.com/ATM.html and also throughout the study area. Finally the results were interpreted with vulnerability map prepared using the GIS technique which shows that most of the affected areas are correlated with the vulnerability map. Cyclone Lehar had adverse impacts on natural ecosystems such as forests, mangroves and sandy beaches. It also damaged man-made features such as settlements, infrastructure, agricultural fields and plantations. This study proves spatial technologies are the indispensible tools for post-disaster planning and impact assessment.”
“Population isolates have long been of interest to genetic epidemiologists because of their potential to increase power to detect disease-causing genetic variants. The Sorbs of Germany are considered as cultural and linguistic isolates and have recently been the focus of disease association mapping efforts. They are thought to have settled in their present location in eastern Germany after a westward migration from a largely Slavic-speaking territory during the Middle Ages. To examine Sorbian genetic diversity within the context of other European populations, we analyzed genotype data for over 30 000 autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms from over 200 Sorbs individuals.