Here, we identify interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) as a domi

Here, we identify interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) as a dominant transcriptional effector of thermogenesis. IRF4 is induced by cold and cAMP in adipocytes and is sufficient to promote increased thermogenic

gene expression, energy expenditure, and cold tolerance. Conversely, knockout of IRF4 in UCP1(+) cells causes reduced thermogenic gene expression and energy expenditure, obesity, and cold intolerance. IRF4 also induces the expression of PGC-1 alpha and PRDM16 and interacts with PGC-1 alpha, driving Ucp1 expression. Finally, cold, beta-agonists, or forced expression of PGC-1 alpha are unable to cause thermogenic gene expression in the absence of IRF4. These studies establish IRF4 as a transcriptional driver of a program of thermogenic gene expression and Epigenetic inhibition energy expenditure.”
“Objective\n\nTo describe the technique and report the surgical outcomes

of clampless laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) partial nephrectomy (PN) in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with low PADUA score.\n\nPatients and Methods\n\nClampless LESS PN was performed in 14 patients with cT1a renal tumours. Indications to perform a clampless LESS PN were low-risk, laterally based renal tumours, located away from the renal hilum, with a PADUA score <= 7. , Demographic data and peri-operative and postoperative variables were recorded and analysed. , Kidney function was evaluated by measuring serum creatinine concentration and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) pre-and postoperatively LDN-193189 chemical structure and at 6-month follow-up.\n\nResults\n\nThe median operating time was 120 min and warm ischaemia time was zero in all cases. Only one early complication (Clavien grade 1) was recorded: one patient developed a flank haematoma

which it was possible to treat by conservative Z-VAD-FMK chemical structure therapy.\n\nSerum creatinine and modification of diet renal disease eGFR were not found to be significantly different preand postoperatively and at 6-month follow-up.\n\nDefinitive pathological results showed 12 pT1a RCCs and two pT1a-chromophobe RCCs. All tumours were removed with negative surgical margins.\n\nAll patients were satisfied with the cosmetic results.\n\nAt a median (range) follow-up period of 12 (8-15) months, all patients were alive without evidence of tumour recurrence or port-site metastasis.\n\nConclusion\n\nClampless LESS PN is a safe and feasible surgical procedure in the treatment of low-risk T1a RCC, with excellent cosmetic results.”
“Background: Platinum nanomaterial is one of the significant noble metal catalysts, and the interaction of platinum with microbe is one of the key factors in influencing the size and the distribution of the platinum nanoparticles on the microbial biomass.

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