However, the detection method used the artificial substrate p-nit

However, the detection method used the artificial substrate p-nitrophenylphosphorylcholine (p-NPPC), which can be hydrolyzed by several other enzymes that can hydrolyze phosphate AR-13324 purchase esters,

including PLD [41]. All 14 ATCC ureaplasma serovar genomes and the genome of the previously sequenced clinical isolate of UPA3 were extensively evaluated for the presence of PLC, PLA1, and PLA2 genes. No genes showed significant similarity to known sequences of PLC, PLA1, or PLA2 in any of the genomes. HMMs developed for known PLC, PLA1, and PLA2 did not detect any ureaplasma genes with significant similarity. This suggested that ureaplasma may encode phospholipases that are either very degenerate or have evolved separately from known phospholipases as BMS202 datasheet previously suggested by Glass

et al. [25], or that no phospholipase genes are present in Ureaplasma spp. It is interesting to note that a PLD domain containing protein was easily identified. In all serovars this protein is annotated as cardiolipin synthase (UPA3_0627 [GenBank YP_001752673]). We used two PLC assays to test ureaplasmas for PLC activity: Invitrogen’s Amplex® Red Phosphatidylcholine-Specific Phospholipase C Assay Kit, which detects also PLD activity, and the original PLC assay published by DeSilva and Quinn. We were not able to detect PLC or PLD activity in ureaplasma cultures of serovars 3 and 8. Our attempts to repeat De Silva and Quinn’s PLC assay using L-a-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine – (choline-methyl-3 H) with PIK3C2G UPA3 and UUR8 cultures grown to exponential phase and processed to collect the cell membranes and cleared cell lysates as described in their original publications

[20, 21, 23] failed to replicate the specific activity levels they reported in ureaplasma cultures. Because we were not able to find PLC, either computationally or experimentally, we believe that this gene is not present in ureaplasmas. However, a study done by Park et al. suggests implication of PLD in the signaling cascade that activates COX-2, leading to production of prostaglandins and initiation of labor [42]. Since all ureaplasma serovars and the four sequenced clinical isolates contain a gene with PLD domains, a future functional characterization of this gene would be of interest. We have not been able to find computationally the genes encoding PLA1 and PLA2 in ureaplasmas. IgA Protease In the mammalian immune system, a primary defense Vadimezan mechanism at mucosal surfaces is the secretion of immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies. Destruction of IgA antibodies by IgA specific protease allows evasion of the host defense mechanism. In Neisseria gonorrhoeae the IgA protease doubles as a LAMP-1 protease to allow it to prevent fusion of the phagosome with the lysosome [43]. IgA protease activity was demonstrated in ureaplasma serovars [16, 17]. All sequenced human ureaplasma genomes were evaluated for IgA protease genes with the same methods as the phospholipases gene search.

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