In spite of only weak sequence similarity, the operon was equival

In spite of only weak sequence similarity, the operon was equivalent selleck chemical to the bldK operon of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) in terms

of chromosomal location and function. Transcription of the operon appeared not to be directly regulated by AdpA, a global regulator of morphological and physiological development in S. griseus, although it was affected by adpA inactivation. This study revealed that an ABC transporter was essential for aerial mycelium formation not only in S. coelicolor A3(2) but also in S. griseus, indicating that extracellular signaling by certain peptides should be conserved among different Streptomyces species. Members of the Gram-positive, soil-dwelling, filamentous bacterial genus Streptomyces undergo a complex process of morphological differentiation during their life cycle.

Spores germinate to form a branched, multinucleoid substrate mycelium, which then gives rise to an aerial mycelium. After septa have been formed at regular intervals along the aerial hyphae, long chains of uninucleoid spores are produced. Because of their complex morphogenesis, Streptomyces spp. have become model prokaryotes for the study of multicellular differentiation. A number of genes that are required for aerial mycelium formation have been identified in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), many of which have been given a bld (bald) designation (Table 1) because the mutants lack the characteristic fuzzy colony morphology of the wild-type (WT) organism (Kelemen & Buttner, 1998; Chater & Horinouchi, 2003; Claessen CP-868596 chemical structure et al., 2006). A hierarchical extracellular signaling cascade has been proposed based on the ability of some bld mutants

to partially restore aerial mycelium formation in other bld mutants when the two are grown in close proximity (Willey et al., 1991, 1993; Nodwell et al., 1999). Because of this ‘extracellular complementation,’ it has been proposed that Interleukin-2 receptor each bld gene is involved, directly or indirectly, in the synthesis of, perception of, or response to a different extracellular signaling molecule. However, almost all of the extracellular signaling molecules have not been identified and an increasing number of questions to the old view of the straightforward hierarchical extracellular signaling cascade have been raised. In fact, a direct involvement in the extracellular signaling molecule has been shown only in bldK, a gene cluster that encodes the components of an oligopeptide permease family of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter. A 655 Da oligopeptide that is imported by the BldK transporter has been identified, but its precise amino acid sequence is yet to be determined (Nodwell & Losick, 1998). The initiation of aerial mycelium formation in another Streptomyces species, Streptomyces griseus, has also been characterized extensively. In S.

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