Indeed, a fluctuating course is classically described in vascular dementia (VaD)61 and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB).65 In line with this hypothesis is the finding that, in a sample of MCI subjects, 20.5% developed VaD within 3.9 years;
nothing in their baseline cognitive profile or their progression (based on MMSE) differentiated them from those who progressed to AD (47.9%).62-66 A third explanation is that the criteria do not. describe a stable state. The Eugeria Project compared MCI (with impairment, in memory, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical but not in any other domain) and AACD over 3 years,36 and showed that. 7.5 % of MCI subjects retained the diagnosis from the first, to second assessment and 17.4 % from the second to third; the corresponding figures for AACD subjects were 56.3% and 59.4 %. Apart from those who became demented, subjects met criteria for the alternative diagnosis (from MCI to AACD and vice versa) or were found to be normal. In this study, the AACD diagnosis had a Ruxolitinib order sensitivity of 94.7 % and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical a specificity of 54.1 %, whereas the MCI diagnosis had a sensitivity of 5.3 % and specificity
of 91.3 % in the prediction of progression toward dementia after 2 years. In another community-based French study,59 the MCT diagnosis was also found to be unstable. According to the cited studies, there Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical is no doubt that mild cognitive deficit in elderly subjects, whatever its definition and criteria, increases the risk of developing dementia. The available data provide a rather broad range of annual incidence of dementia and are not Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical all in favor of a linear prevalence-time relationship in mildly impaired patients. The proposed sets of criteria have different, stability and predictive values. Also, they do not allow identification of individuals who will develop dementia or – more importantly – the type of dementia toward which they could evolve. Beyond the criteria themselves, several studies found predictors of progression to dementia or even to AD in measures derived from the MMSE,62 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the CDR,63 or impairment in memory, verbal fluency, and attention on more conventional neuropsychological tests.52, 67-69
As pointed out by Tuokko and Frcrichs,70 a major shortcoming of these data is that, they are retrospective. No combination of cognitive tests has yet been assessed prospectively for its ability to predict, outcome in mildly impaired patients. If it were done using neuropsychological batteries that, were sufficiently these refined for early identification of the characteristic signs of the major dementing diseases and determination of reliable cutoff scores, then this type of investigation would be reserved for specialized teams; however, the first person who people with cognitive complaints see is their general practitioner. It is expected that this dilemma will be partly solved in the near future by recourse to investigational techniques.