Monti The authors are grateful to Professor Antonio Contestabile

Monti. The authors are grateful to Professor Antonio Contestabile for critically reading the article. The skillful technical assistance of Miss Monia Bentivogli is gratefully acknowledged. Abbreviations BSA bovine serum albumin C/EBP CCAAT enhancer-binding protein CGN cerebellar granule neuron DMEM Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium DTT dithiothreitol ER endoplasmic reticulum EV empty vector GAP-43 growth-asociated protein 43 GFP green fluorescent protein learn more LAP liver activator protein LIP liver inhibitory protein

MTT 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide NMDA N-methyl-d-aspartate ODC ornithine decarboxylase PBS phosphate-buffered see more saline pCMV plasmid cytomegalovirus SUMO small ubiquitin-like modifier “
“Functional neuroimaging studies have shown activation of the supramarginal gyrus during pitch memory tasks. A previous transcranial direct current stimulation study using cathodal stimulation over the left supramarginal gyrus reported a detrimental effect on short-term pitch memory performance, indicating an important role

of the supramarginal gyrus in pitch memory. The current study aimed to determine whether pitch memory could be improved following anodal stimulation of the left supramarginal gyrus. The performances of non-musicians on two pitch memory tasks (pitch recognition and recall) and a visual memory control task following anodal or sham transcranial direct current stimulation were compared. The results show that, post-stimulation, the anodal group but not the control group performed significantly better on both pitch memory tasks; performance did not differ on the face memory task. These findings provide

strong support for the causal involvement of the left supramarginal gyrus in the pitch memory process, and highlight the potential efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation as a tool to improve pitch memory. “
“Eyeblink classical conditioning (EBCC) is a cerebellum-dependent paradigm of associative motor learning, and abnormal EBCC is a neurophysiological indicator of cerebellar dysfunction. We have previously demonstrated impaired EBCC in patients with primary dystonia, 6-phosphogluconolactonase but it remains uncertain if this represents actual cerebellar pathology or reflects a functional cerebellar disruption. We examined this further by: (1) studying acquisition and retention of EBCC in a second session in eight patients with cervical dystonia (CD) who had a first session 7–10 days earlier; and (2) by investigating the potential of continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) over the right cerebellar hemisphere to modify a first-ever EBCC session in 11 patients with CD. EBCC data of eight healthy controls previously studied were used for additional between-group comparisons.

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