Patients with CRC (70 women and 61 men) were matched for gender and age to 206 healthy ICG-001 molecular weight controls. The mean age of the two groups was 62 years. Meat intake, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking were assessed using a specific frequency questionnaire. The body mass index was also calculated. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood; RsaI polymorphism genotypes were evaluated
by PCR-RFLP and 96-bp insertion genetic polymorphisms were evaluated by specific primers. The distributions of CYP2E1 RsaI c1/c1, c1/c2 and c2/c2 genotypes were 90.2, 9.2 and 0.6%, respectively, in controls and 83.9, 13.7 and 2.4% in CRC cases. Allele c2 was associated with increased risk for CRC [odds ratio (OR) = 1.88, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.02-3.45]. The CYP2E1 RsaI c2/c2 genotype was associated with an increased risk for rectal cancer (OR = 3.23, 95% CI = 1.26-9.03). The 96-bp insertion was slightly
more frequent in the CRC group (9.3 vs 11.4%, P = 0.19), especially in females (6.4 MS-275 Epigenetics inhibitor vs 11.5%, P = 0.34). Smoking, alcohol drinking or high intake of red meat and CYP2E1 polymorphisms were not associated with increased risk for CRC. The 96-bp insertion was marginally more frequent (P = 0.07) in undernourished CRC subjects. We concluded that the risk for CRC is higher among individuals with allele c2. The CYP2E1 RsaI c2/c2 genotype was associated with an increased risk for rectal cancer.”
Malaria case management is one of the key strategies to control malaria. Various studies have demonstrated the feasibility of home management of malaria (HMM). However, data on the costs and effectiveness of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and rapid diagnostic tests via HMM is limited.
Method: Cost-effectiveness of home management versus health facility-based management of uncomplicated malaria in two rural districts in Zambia was analysed from a providers’ perspective. The sample click here included 16 community health workers (CHWs) and 15 health facilities. The outcome measure was the cost per case appropriately diagnosed and treated. Costs of scaling-up HMM nationwide were estimated based on the CHW utilisation rates observed in the study.
Results: HMM was more cost effective than facility-based management of uncomplicated malaria. The cost per case correctly diagnosed and treated was USD 4.22 for HMM and USD 6.12 for facility level. Utilization and adherence to diagnostic and treatment guidelines was higher in HMM than at a health facility.
Conclusion: HMM using ACT and RDTs was more efficient at appropriately diagnosing and treating malaria than the health facility level. Scaling up this intervention requires significant investments.