Recent findings

The clinical presentation of hepatitis

Recent findings

The clinical presentation of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is different from that of non-HBV-PAN and requires antiviral treatment. In hepatitic C virus (HCV)-associated autoimmune diseases, type 2 cryoglobulinemia is present in 52% of cases. Chronic nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is related to endonasal

activity of Wegener’s granulomatosis and recurrent relapses, and prophylactic treatment with Akt inhibition co-trimoxazole is effective in reducing relapse rate.


Patients with PAN should be tested for HBV, and patients with type 2 cryoglobulinemia for HCV. When tested positive, antiviral treatment should be considered. Patients with Wegener’s granulomatosis should be tested for nasal carriage of S. PD0332991 research buy aureus, and prophylactic treatment with co-trimoxazole should be considered in case of persistent endonasal activity of Wegener’s granulomatosis together with S. aureus carriage. The efficacy of S. aureus elimination for preventing relapses of Wegener’s granulomatosis should be evaluated.”

progression of osteoporosis or the rigid reinforcement of the fractured vertebral body with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) cement is being discussed as a cause for adjacent-level fractures after vertebroplasty. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether augmentation with low stiffness cement can decrease the risk of adjacent-level fractures in low-quality bone.

Eighteen female osteoporotic lumbar specimens (L1-L5) were harvested and divided into three groups according to bone mineral density: (I) native; (II) PMMA; (III) modified PMMA (lower stiffness). For the PMMA and modified PMMA groups, a compression

fracture was first mechanically induced in L3, and then the fracture received vertebroplasty treatment. The cement stiffness reduction of the modified PMMA group was achieved via an addition of 8 mL of serum to the typical PMMA base. All specimens were exposed to cyclic loading (4 Hz) and a stepwise increasing applied peak force. Cement stiffness was tested according to ISO 5833.

A 51 % decrease in cement AZD6244 mw stiffness was achieved in the modified PMMA group (954 +/- A 141 vs. 1,937 +/- A 478 MPa, p < 0.001). Fatigue fracture force (the force level during cyclic loading at which the deformation experienced a sudden increase; FFF) was significantly affected by bone quality (r (2) = 0.39, p = 0.006) and by the initial fracture force (the force necessary to create the initial fracture in L3 prior to augmentation; r (2) = 0.82, p < 0.001). Using initial fracture force as a covariate, the FFF of the modified PMMA group (1,764 +/- A 49 N) was significantly higher than in the PMMA group (1,544 +/- A 55 N; p = 0.03).

A possible method to reduce adjacent-level fractures after vertebroplasty in patients with reduced bone quality could be the use of a lower modulus cement.

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