The contractile response to endothelin, angiotensin and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor stimulation was studied by sensitive wire myograph. Results: Only downstream segments exhibited an augmented contractile response to stimulation with each of the three ligands, with the response towards sarafotoxin 6c being especially augmented compared to sham, upstream and contralateral controls. This functional increase did not seem to relate to ischemic tissue damage, inflammatory cell infiltration or the element this website of reperfusion. Interestingly, immunohistochemistry did not
show any difference in the level of immunoreactivity towards endothelin B (ETB) receptors between groups. Conclusion: Single artery occlusion without significant visible infarct
resulted in locally increased ETB, angiotensin type 1 and 5-hydroxytryptamine 1B receptor-mediated contractile responses only in segments located downstream of the occlusion site. This suggests lack of wall stress as an initiating trigger leading to regulation of contractile response after cerebral stroke. (C) AZD1208 mouse 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Chemokine receptors play pivotal roles for immune cell recruitment to inflammation sites, in response to chemokine gradients (chemotaxis). The mechanisms of chemokine signaling, especially the initiation of the intracellular signaling cascade, are not well understood. We previously identified a cytoplasmic protein FROUNT, which binds to the C-terminal regions of CCR2 and CCR5 to mediate chemokine
signaling. Although large amounts of purified protein are required for detailed biochemical studies and drug screening, no method to produce recombinant FROUNT has been reported. In this study, we developed a method for the production of recombinant human FROUNT. Human FROUNT was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli, as a nearly soluble protein fused to the folding chaperone Trigger Factor, with a cold shock expression system. The purified FROUNT protein displayed CCR2 binding ability without any additional components, as demonstrated by SPR measurements. A gel filtration analysis suggested that FROUNT exists in a homo-oligomeric state. This high-yield method is cost-effective for human FROUNT production. It should be a powerful tool for further biochemical and structural studies to elucidate GPCR regulation and chemokine signaling, and also will contribute to drug development. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is produced in vessels during ischemia/reperfusion and during inflammation, both leading to vascular dysfunction. We investigated cellular pathways involved in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation at Threonine 495 (Thr(495)) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to H2O2. Methods: HUVECs were exposed to 400 mu m H2O2 for 30 min. Phosphorylation at Thr(495) was assessed by Western blotting and reactive oxygen species (ROS) monitored by flow cytometry.