“The Wnt signaling pathway plays a fundamental role during metazoan development, where it regulates diverse processes, including cell fate specification, cell migration, and stem cell renewal. Activation
of the beta-catenin-dependent/canonical Wnt pathway up-regulates expression of Wnt target genes to mediate a cellular response. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a canonical Wnt signaling pathway regulates several processes during larval development; however, few target genes of this pathway have been identified. To address this deficit, we used a novel approach of conditionally activated Wnt signaling during a defined stage of larval life by overexpressing an activated beta-catenin protein, then used microarray analysis to identify genes showing altered expression compared with control animals. We identified 166 differentially expressed genes, of which 104 were up-regulated. A subset BIBF 1120 research buy of the up-regulated genes was shown to have altered expression in mutants with decreased or increased Wnt signaling; we consider these genes to be bona fide C. elegans Wnt pathway targets. Among these was a group of six genes, including the
cuticular collagen genes, bli-1 col-38, col-49, and col-71. These genes show a peak of expression in the mid L4 stage during normal development, suggesting a role in adult cuticle formation. Consistent with this finding, reduction of function SC79 cost for several of the genes causes phenotypes suggestive of defects in cuticle function or integrity. Therefore, this work has identified a large number of putative Wnt pathway target genes during larval life, including
a small subset of Panobinostat cost Wnt-regulated collagen genes that may function in synthesis of the adult cuticle.”
“Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was identified in 1980s as a protein that increases vascular permeability and induces endothelial cell-specific mitosis. VEGF plays an important role in angiogenesis during the embryonic stage and in angiogenesis and in increasing vascular permeability during postnatal life, both physiologically and pathologically. Great progress has been made in studies of VEGF, mainly in the field of oncology, and VEGF-targeted therapy has been successfully used to treat patients with cancer. In research related to chronic inflammation, several reports concerning rheumatoid arthritis or retinopathy and VEGF have been published. In the lower respiratory tract, increased levels of VEGF have been detected in biological samples from patients with asthma. However, VEGF has not been studied in detail in upper-airway diseases, such as rhinosinusitis. This review article focuses on VEGF and allergic rhinitis to advance studies of VEGF in chronic inflammation of the upper respiratory tract.