These findings demonstrate that the S. aureus dispersal mechanism from consolidated biofilm requires extracellular protease activity. Recently, the existence of a new pathway has been demonstrated, controlling protein-mediated biofilm formation in which different Selleckchem CYC202 Global regulators modulate biofilm formation by controlling the expression of S. aureus extracellular proteases . Therefore, in analogy to what is described for S. aureus, we hypothesise that
the negative Erastin in vivo impact of extracellular proteases on biofilm formation is multifactorial, potentially promoting detachment and release from a mature biofilm, via degradation of C. parapsilosis adhesins and/or extracellular matrix components. Conclusions Overall, these results confirm previous evidence that Candida parapsilosis is characterised by a limited DNA sequence variability, even when considering isolates collected from distant geographical regions. Selleck Compound C The fact that phenotypic properties were found to significantly differ in strains isolated from various geographical regions suggests that other mechanisms such as epigenetic
modifications may be used by this yeast to adapt to environmental changes. Acknowledgements This study was supported by the research grant no. 2005068754 from the Italian Ministero dell’Istruzione, dell’Università e della Ricerca and by Merck & Co. Inc. We are grateful to Prof Giulia Morace, Dr Arlo Upton and Dr Marisa Biasoli who provided us with isolates. We also thank Dr Colin G. Egan for revising the manuscript for English language. References 1. Lockhart SR, Messer
SA, Pfaller MA, Diekema DJ: Geographic distribution and antifungal susceptibility of the newly described species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis in comparison to the closely related species Candida parapsilosis . J Clin Microbiol 2008, 46:2659–2664.PubMedCrossRef 2. Pfaller MA, Diekema DJ, Gibbs DL, Newell VA, Ng KP, Colombo A, Finquelievich J, Barnes R, Wadula J, Global Anifungal surveillance Group: Geographic and temporal trends in isolation and antifungal susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis : a global assessment from the ARTEMIS DISK Antifungal Surveillance Program, 2001 to 2005. J Clin Microbiol 2008, 46:842–849.PubMedCrossRef 3. Almirante B, Rodriguez D, Cuenca-Estrella M, Almela M, Sanchez F, Ayats J, Alonso-Tarres C, Rodriguez-Tudela FAD L, Pahissa A: Epidemiology, risk factors, and prognosis of Candida parapsilosis bloodstream infections: case-control population-based surveillance study of patients in Barcelona, Spain, from 2002 to 2003. J Clin Microbiol 2006, 44:1681–1685.PubMedCrossRef 4. Pfaller MA, Diekema DJ: Epidemiology of invasive candidiasis: a persistent public health problem. Clin Microbiol Rev 2007, 20:133–163.PubMedCrossRef 5. Colombo AL, Guimaraes T, Silva LR, de Almeida Monfardini LP, Cunha AK, Rady P, Alves T, Rosas RC: Prospective observational study of candidemia in Sao Paulo, Brazil: incidence rate, epidemiology, and predictors of mortality.