Using double-labeled immunohistochemistry
combined with in situ hybridization (ISH) we firstly identified the distribution of these mRNAs in the spinal cord and determined quantitatively, in Sprague Dawley rats, that many SPN at the T4-T10 spinal level contain preproPACAP (PPP+, 80+/-3%, n=3), whereas a very small percentage contain preproenkephalin (PPE+, 4+/-2%, n=4). A similar neurochemical distribution was found at C8-T3 spinal level. These data suggest that PACAP potentially regulates a large number of functions dictated by SPN whereas enkephalins are involved in few functions. We extended the study to explore those SPN that control adrenal chromaffin cells. We found 97+/-5% of adrenally projecting SPN (AP-SPN) to be PPP+ (n=4) with only 47+/-3% that were PPE+ (n=5). Avapritinib clinical trial see more These data indicate that adrenally projecting PACAPergic SPN regulate both adrenal adrenaline (Ad) and noradrenaline (NAd) release whereas the enkephalinergic SPN subpopulation must control a (sub) population of chromaffin cells most likely those that release Ad. The sensory innervation of the adrenal gland was also determined. Of the few adrenally projecting dorsal root ganglia (AP-DRG) observed, 74+/-12% were PPP+ (n=3), whereas 1+/-1% were PPE+ (n=3). Therefore, if
sensory neurons release peptides to the adrenal medulla, PACAP is most likely involved. Together, these data provide a neurochemical basis for differential control of sympathetic outflow particularly that to the adrenal medulla. (C) 2010 Bcl-w IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: We investigated the preliminary results
of percutaneous radio frequency ablation for renal tumors in patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease.
Materials and Methods: Between October 2005 and April 2009 image guided radio frequency ablation was performed to ablate a total of 48 renal tumors in 11 patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease. Six of the 11 patients had undergone radical or partial nephrectomy for renal cell carcinomas. We recorded whether tumors were successfully ablated, major complications, and changes in serum creatinine and the estimated glomerular filtration rate.
Results: A total of 29 sessions (70 ablations) were done. Of 48 tumors 42 (88%) were successfully ablated at 1 (41) or 3 (1) sessions and 6 (12%) had residual or recurrent lesions. Two residual tumors were treated with nephrectomy, 2 were too small to be ablated and 1 was treated with chemotherapy due to pulmonary metastasis. The remaining residual tumor was completely ablated at 2 sessions but recurred. Overall 8 of 11 patients (73%) were successfully treated with radio frequency ablation but 3 (27%) had residual or recurrent tumors. Two major complications (6.9%) developed at a total of 29 sessions, including arteriovenous fistula and ureteral perforation. Mean serum creatinine increased 11.2% and the mean estimated glomerular filtration rate decreased 9.4% after the last ablation.