In spite of only weak sequence similarity, the operon was equival

In spite of only weak sequence similarity, the operon was equivalent selleck chemical to the bldK operon of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) in terms

of chromosomal location and function. Transcription of the operon appeared not to be directly regulated by AdpA, a global regulator of morphological and physiological development in S. griseus, although it was affected by adpA inactivation. This study revealed that an ABC transporter was essential for aerial mycelium formation not only in S. coelicolor A3(2) but also in S. griseus, indicating that extracellular signaling by certain peptides should be conserved among different Streptomyces species. Members of the Gram-positive, soil-dwelling, filamentous bacterial genus Streptomyces undergo a complex process of morphological differentiation during their life cycle.

Spores germinate to form a branched, multinucleoid substrate mycelium, which then gives rise to an aerial mycelium. After septa have been formed at regular intervals along the aerial hyphae, long chains of uninucleoid spores are produced. Because of their complex morphogenesis, Streptomyces spp. have become model prokaryotes for the study of multicellular differentiation. A number of genes that are required for aerial mycelium formation have been identified in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), many of which have been given a bld (bald) designation (Table 1) because the mutants lack the characteristic fuzzy colony morphology of the wild-type (WT) organism (Kelemen & Buttner, 1998; Chater & Horinouchi, 2003; Claessen CP-868596 chemical structure et al., 2006). A hierarchical extracellular signaling cascade has been proposed based on the ability of some bld mutants

to partially restore aerial mycelium formation in other bld mutants when the two are grown in close proximity (Willey et al., 1991, 1993; Nodwell et al., 1999). Because of this ‘extracellular complementation,’ it has been proposed that Interleukin-2 receptor each bld gene is involved, directly or indirectly, in the synthesis of, perception of, or response to a different extracellular signaling molecule. However, almost all of the extracellular signaling molecules have not been identified and an increasing number of questions to the old view of the straightforward hierarchical extracellular signaling cascade have been raised. In fact, a direct involvement in the extracellular signaling molecule has been shown only in bldK, a gene cluster that encodes the components of an oligopeptide permease family of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter. A 655 Da oligopeptide that is imported by the BldK transporter has been identified, but its precise amino acid sequence is yet to be determined (Nodwell & Losick, 1998). The initiation of aerial mycelium formation in another Streptomyces species, Streptomyces griseus, has also been characterized extensively. In S.

To produce antibodies against the NspC protein, the peptide GYDVE

To produce antibodies against the NspC protein, the peptide GYDVEKLGAALKAFAERH corresponding to the amino acids 221–238 was synthesized and conjugated to KLH by Biosynthesis Inc. (Lewisville, TX). A male New Zealand White rabbit was immunized with an emulsion of 0.5 mL of a 2 mg mL−1 solution of the peptide in PBS and 0.5 mL of Freund’s Complete Adjuvant (Sigma) and boosted on weeks 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11. The animal was sacrificed at week 11, and the serum find more was used directly for the Western blots. This procedure was approved by the Appalachian State University IACUC committee (protocol number 07-3). For Western blotting, the serum and the horseradish peroxidase-conjugated goat anti-rabbit secondary

antibody were used at a 1 : 1000 and 1 : 10000 dilutions, respectively. ECL Plus chemiluminescent UK-371804 (GE Healthcare, Piscataway, NJ) or Super Signal West Femto (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Rockford, IL) HRP substrates were used for detection, and the X-ray films were developed manually. Total RNA was extracted from 5 mL of cells (AK 083 and AK103) grown to mid-log phase using Ambion RiboPure™-Bacteria kit (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) and treated with DNase I for 2 h at 37 °C. One microgram of this RNA was reverse-transcribed using Protoscript® First Strand cDNA Synthesis kit (NEB, Ipswich, MA) with random primers. The cDNA from two biological

replicates was then used in quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) using gene-specific primers and SYBR Green PCR Master Mix (Applied Biosystems). Reactions were performed in triplicate. All PCR efficiencies were tested using a log dilution curve and were 100% efficient ±10%. All qRT-PCR products

were checked for accuracy using melt curve analysis. Data were analyzed using the relative expression software program, rest, which incorporates randomization and bootstrapping algorithms to analyze real-time quantitative PCR data (Pfaffl et al., 2002, available as freeware from www.qiagen.com). The rpoB gene encoding the RNA polymerase beta subunit was used as internal control (Quinones et al., 2005). A minimum of three biological replicates were performed for all experiments (unless otherwise noted) to ensure reproducibility of the results. Data were analyzed using Student’s t-test many (two-tailed, unpaired, unless otherwise noted) and differences were deemed statistically significant for P-values of 0.05 and below. Deletion of the nspC gene has been shown to be deleterious to biofilm formation in V. cholerae O1 El Tor (Lee et al., 2009). The inhibition of biofilm formation was attributed to the lack of norspermidine in the cell; however, the mechanism of this effect was not elucidated. Our repeated attempts to delete the nspC gene in V. cholerae O139 proved unsuccessful; therefore, we overexpressed the nspC gene from a multicopy plasmid (pACYC184::nspC, hereafter referred to as pnspC) to gain more insight into regulation of biofilm formation by polyamine synthesis pathways.

To produce antibodies against the NspC protein, the peptide GYDVE

To produce antibodies against the NspC protein, the peptide GYDVEKLGAALKAFAERH corresponding to the amino acids 221–238 was synthesized and conjugated to KLH by Biosynthesis Inc. (Lewisville, TX). A male New Zealand White rabbit was immunized with an emulsion of 0.5 mL of a 2 mg mL−1 solution of the peptide in PBS and 0.5 mL of Freund’s Complete Adjuvant (Sigma) and boosted on weeks 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11. The animal was sacrificed at week 11, and the serum Ganetespib concentration was used directly for the Western blots. This procedure was approved by the Appalachian State University IACUC committee (protocol number 07-3). For Western blotting, the serum and the horseradish peroxidase-conjugated goat anti-rabbit secondary

antibody were used at a 1 : 1000 and 1 : 10000 dilutions, respectively. ECL Plus chemiluminescent INCB024360 (GE Healthcare, Piscataway, NJ) or Super Signal West Femto (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Rockford, IL) HRP substrates were used for detection, and the X-ray films were developed manually. Total RNA was extracted from 5 mL of cells (AK 083 and AK103) grown to mid-log phase using Ambion RiboPure™-Bacteria kit (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) and treated with DNase I for 2 h at 37 °C. One microgram of this RNA was reverse-transcribed using Protoscript® First Strand cDNA Synthesis kit (NEB, Ipswich, MA) with random primers. The cDNA from two biological

replicates was then used in quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) using gene-specific primers and SYBR Green PCR Master Mix (Applied Biosystems). Reactions were performed in triplicate. All PCR efficiencies were tested using a log dilution curve and were 100% efficient ±10%. All qRT-PCR products

were checked for accuracy using melt curve analysis. Data were analyzed using the relative expression software program, rest, which incorporates randomization and bootstrapping algorithms to analyze real-time quantitative PCR data (Pfaffl et al., 2002, available as freeware from www.qiagen.com). The rpoB gene encoding the RNA polymerase beta subunit was used as internal control (Quinones et al., 2005). A minimum of three biological replicates were performed for all experiments (unless otherwise noted) to ensure reproducibility of the results. Data were analyzed using Student’s t-test Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (two-tailed, unpaired, unless otherwise noted) and differences were deemed statistically significant for P-values of 0.05 and below. Deletion of the nspC gene has been shown to be deleterious to biofilm formation in V. cholerae O1 El Tor (Lee et al., 2009). The inhibition of biofilm formation was attributed to the lack of norspermidine in the cell; however, the mechanism of this effect was not elucidated. Our repeated attempts to delete the nspC gene in V. cholerae O139 proved unsuccessful; therefore, we overexpressed the nspC gene from a multicopy plasmid (pACYC184::nspC, hereafter referred to as pnspC) to gain more insight into regulation of biofilm formation by polyamine synthesis pathways.

However, CFH gene expression has been shown to be induced during

However, CFH gene expression has been shown to be induced during epileptogenesis in the post-SE model (Aronica et al., 2007). selleck inhibitor In addition, expression of CFH protein was observed in miR-146a-positive glial cells in the chronic epileptic phase in

HS specimens. In conclusion, our observations demonstrate an upregulation of miR-146a with prominent expression in astrocytes during epileptogenesis in a rat model of TLE as well as in human TLE. Understanding the role of miR-146a epilepsy-associated pathologies may be relevant for the development of new therapeutic strategies whereby glial function is targeted. Whether a misregulation of specific miRNAs, such as miR-146a, could contribute to epileptogenesis remains to be explored. Overexpression and loss of function studies in vitro, as well as in animal

models, will help to further identify the exact role of miR-146a in the modulation of the inflammatory response and associated pathogenic signalling in epilepsy. We are grateful to J.T. van Heteren for her technical help. This work has been supported by National Epilepsy Funds, NEF 09-05 (E.A.), NEF07-19 (J.A.G.); EU FP7 project NeuroGlia, Grant Agreement N° 202167. Abbreviations AD Alzheimer’s disease CFH complement factor H DG dentate gyrus GFAP glial fibrillary acidic protein HLA human leukocyte antigen HS hippocampal sclerosis IL interleukin miRNA microRNA miRNA-146 miR-146 qPCR quantitative polymerase chain selleck compound reaction SE status epilepticus TLE temporal lobe epilepsy TLR toll-like receptor TNF-α tumour necrosis factor alpha “
“In songbirds, a specialized neural system,

the song system, is responsible for acquisition and expression of species-specific vocal patterns. We report evidence for differential gene expression between wild and domesticated strains having different learned vocal phenotypes. A domesticated strain of the wild white-rumped munia, the Bengalese finch, has a distinct song pattern with a more complicated syntax than the wild strain. We identified differential SPTLC1 androgen receptor (AR) expression in basal ganglia nucleus Area X GABAergic neurons between the two strains, and within different domesticated populations. Differences in AR expression were correlated with the mean coefficient of variation of the inter-syllable duration in the two strains. Differential AR expression in Area X was observed before the initiation of singing, suggesting that inherited and/or early developmental mechanisms may affect expression within and between strains. However, there were no distinct differences in regions upstream of the AR start codon among all the birds in the study. In contrast, an epigenetic modification, DNA methylation state in regions upstream of AR in Area X, was observed to differ between strains and within domesticated populations.

Comparative genomic analysis of the two strains identified a numb

Comparative genomic analysis of the two strains identified a number of genomic regions and genes containing virulence factors. Of particular interest was the discovery of a novel plasmid

pPAA3 that was previously unknown in the genus Photorhabdus. The pPAA3 plasmid contains a Type IV secretion system similar to the pCRY plasmid in Yersinia pestis. Type IV secretion systems are well-known virulence factors, involved in delivering ‘effectors’ Atezolizumab price such as toxins into eukaryotic cells. We speculate that this plasmid may be responsible for the ability of the Australian isolates to invade nonphagocytic cells in tissue culture, which is not seen in the closely related US isolates that lack this plasmid (Costa et al., 2009). We used a combination of Illumina, 454 and Sanger sequencing

to gather primary sequence data for the P. asymbiotica Kingscliff genome. We also constructed libraries to provide both Illumina-based paired-end reads and large insert fosmid libraries for conventional Sanger-based end sequencing (see Supporting Information, Appendix S1 for details). We used three different workflows, combining different types of sequence data with different assembly algorithms, to look for the optimal de novo assembly (see Fig. S1). The first (Workflow A) used the VCAKE pipeline (Reinhardt et al., 2009) to perform a hybrid assembly of the 454 data and the Illumina paired and unpaired reads. Illumina reads were de novo clustered with vcake version buy BTK inhibitor 1.03 into Org 27569 VCAKE contigs. Newbler then assembles VCAKE contigs and 454 long reads into hybrid contigs. The Newbler scaffolder orients the hybrid contigs into larger hybrid scaffolds using

454 paired-end data. Hybrid scaffolds are cleaned of 1–2 base pairs (bp) indels using Illumina read depth; longer gaps within scaffolds were filled with unused VCAKE and hybrid contigs in Finisher. Finally, polymorphism and coverage in the scaffolds were used to identify any putative repeat regions. The second workflow (Workflow B) used the velvet assembler (version 0.7.27) to produce an assembly of the Illumina paired read data. The third workflow (Workflow C) was a hybrid assembly of Illumina paired read data and 454 data using the VELVET assembler. Once the assemblies were complete, Sanger-derived fosmid end sequences were aligned to the different assemblies to verify that the contigs were in the correct orientation. Sequence alignments were performed using the newbler gsmapper software, providing the assembly contigs as a reference sequence. Alignments were visualized using Seqman (dna star version 8). The optimal draft assembly was selected by choosing the output that had the optimal characteristics of high N50, low N and a sum of contigs equal to the estimated genome size, which was estimated to be ∼5 Mb. For comparisons with the finished genome of P. asymbiotica ATCC43949, Illumina paired-end reads were mapped both to the genome and to the pPAU1 and pCRY plasmids using the maq assembler version 0.6.

5 billion Conclusions Unnecessary spending on pharmacy charges h

5 billion. Conclusions Unnecessary spending on pharmacy charges has the potential to outstrip the estimated cost of medicines wastage in the UK. The cost-effectiveness of restricted prescription lengths for the cheaper, mostly generic medications merits an urgent re-examination. “
“Objective  Problem drinking is an increasing concern selleck kinase inhibitor to many governments worldwide including those of England and New Zealand. Screening and brief

intervention (SBI) is effective at reducing alcohol consumption and preventing escalation of hazardous drinking patterns into harmful drinking or dependence. Community pharmacy has been suggested as a potential site from which to provide readily accessible SBI services. This paper explores the views of 40 pharmacists on the prospect of providing SBI for alcohol health promotion purposes, focusing particularly upon potential barriers and incentives to provision of these services. The aim was to explore the views of community pharmacists toward the development of SBI for risky drinkers through semi-structured interviews. Methods  Qualitative, tape-recorded interviews conducted with 22 English pharmacists and 18 New Zealand pharmacists. Data collection continued until theme selleck screening library saturation

occurred. Transcribed interviews were thematically analysed. Key findings  Pharmacists considered there was a place for alcohol health promotion in community pharmacy. However, not all participants were positive about this potential new role and some expressed apprehension about implementing SBI services due to concerns about offending or alienating customers. Other barriers included lack of experience and confidence, problems faced with other health promotion initiatives, time, privacy and remuneration.

Other pharmacists were more positive, seeing potential in terms of remaining competitive. oxyclozanide Facilitators included a public health campaign to raise awareness of problem drinking, having appropriate screening tools available and training for pharmacists. Conclusion  There appears to be potential for alcohol SBI services in community pharmacy, and interventions designed to reduce barriers and enhance incentivisation need to be implemented and evaluated. “
“The objective of this article was to assess if Australian pharmacy staff prevent potential adverse reactions in warfarin patients requesting over-the-counter (OTC) analgesia. Mystery shoppers entered 170 pharmacies across Australia to request OTC analgesia for a hypothetical patient with a wrist injury who currently takes warfarin following a heart valve replacement. The request was made to the first pharmacist or non-pharmacist staff member to approach the mystery shopper. The interaction was audio-taped and assessed by a pharmacist. The OTC analgesic recommended was assessed for the potential to cause an adverse bleeding event.

Although the combination of TDF with fosamprenavir (FPV), the pho

Although the combination of TDF with fosamprenavir (FPV), the phosphate ester prodrug of the PI amprenavir (APV), has been reported to be effective and well tolerated in HIV-infected patients [4,15–19], a formal TDF–FPV drug

interaction study has not been carried out to date. The current study was designed to investigate whether there is a drug interaction when TDF 300 mg once daily (qd) is combined with either unboosted FPV 1400 mg twice daily (bid) or an RTV-boosted FPV regimen (FPV/RTV 700/100 mg bid). This Phase I, open-label, three-period, balanced-crossover, selleck chemical steady-state pharmacokinetic study was conducted between October 2005 and April 2006 at Garden State Infectious Diseases Clinic in Voorhees, NJ, USA. Male and nonpregnant female healthy volunteer subjects were eligible for this study if they were 18–55 years of age, were not users of alcohol or illicit drugs, and were in good health based on medical history, physical examination findings and laboratory testing. The protocol, subject-informed

consent form and investigator’s brochure were reviewed and approved by the Research Consultant’s Review Committee Institutional Review Board (Sterling IRB, Atlanta, GA, USA) prior to study initiation. All study subjects provided written informed consent Osimertinib to participate. Subjects underwent screening assessments within 30 days of dosing to determine their eligibility. Enrolled subjects were assigned to one of four groups (A, B, C and D), each with a different sequence of regimens to rule out period effects (regimens given in Table 1, footnote). The dosing scheme of the study ensured that half the subjects

would receive unboosted FPV 1400 mg bid and half FPV/RTV 700/100 mg bid with and without TDF 300 mg qd. Drug intake was directly observed by study staff to confirm adherence. Serial blood samples were obtained at baseline, and at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h after dosing on study day 7 of period 1 and study days 21 and 35 of periods 2 and 3, respectively. Subjects fasted for 10 h before the time of blood sampling. Blood samples were stored on ice until they could be centrifuged within 6 h post-sampling. Centrifugation was performed at 2000 g for 5 min. Thereafter, Erlotinib solubility dmso 1 mL of plasma was withdrawn via a pipette and placed into cryo-vials for storage in a −70 °C freezer. APV and RTV concentrations were measured using a previously described assay method [20]. Plasma TFV concentrations were measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography assay with tandem mass spectrometric (HPLC-MS/MS) detection (validation range 1–500 ng/mL). TFV was extracted from 80 μL of human plasma by protein precipitation using acetonitrile containing an isotopically stable-labelled internal standard, 2H6-TFV.

All participants were instructed to count mentally in their nativ

All participants were instructed to count mentally in their native language. A numeric keypad appeared on the screen and asked the participant to enter a number at three random times during each trial, and then again at the end of the

trial (minimum of 15 s and maximum of 80 s between keypad screens; Fig. 1A). selleck kinase inhibitor Each trial thus provided four numeric answers that served to analyse subject performance. If no numeric answer was entered within 9 s, the keypad disappeared (this happened five times out of 480 total keypads across all participants). In these cases, we interpolated the number of mental calculation steps using the nearest-neighbor method). In the Easy and Difficult tasks, participants were instructed to enter the value of their current mental calculation (Fig. 1A). In the Control task, participants were instructed to enter any number they wanted to. Participants’ eye position was calibrated at the beginning of the experimental session, and re-calibrated after each break. We used custom code and the Psychophysics Toolbox (Brainard, 1997; Pelli, 1997; Kleiner et al., 2007) to generate/display visual stimuli. For one participant, the pupil was lost during the fourth block

of the experiment. This amounted to a total of three trials Vorinostat mouse (one Control, one Easy and one Difficult) of 3 min each. For this participant, we replaced the missing microsaccade rate, microsaccade

magnitude and microsaccade peak velocity values with the average values from the corresponding conditions in the other five blocks (Roth, 1994). In the Easy task, a correct answer was defined as any even number that was higher than the starting number, or the previously entered number on the keypad. In Thiamet G the Difficult task, a correct answer was defined as any number that was smaller than the starting number or the previously entered number on the keypad and divisible by 17 after subtraction from the trial’s starting number. If a subject produced an incorrect answer, we reset the starting number to the value of the incorrect answer, so as to assess the correctness of subsequent counting within the same trial. Correct answers and number of iterative calculations during the trial indicated performance in both mental arithmetic tasks. There was a maximum of four correct answers per trial. We imposed a minimum performance criterion, requiring an average of at least one correct numeric answer per trial in the Difficult task (that is, a minimum of six out of 24 correct answers throughout the experimental session; the Easy task generated virtually no incorrect answers). One participant failed to meet this requirement and was discarded.

All participants were instructed to count mentally in their nativ

All participants were instructed to count mentally in their native language. A numeric keypad appeared on the screen and asked the participant to enter a number at three random times during each trial, and then again at the end of the

trial (minimum of 15 s and maximum of 80 s between keypad screens; Fig. 1A). IDH mutation Each trial thus provided four numeric answers that served to analyse subject performance. If no numeric answer was entered within 9 s, the keypad disappeared (this happened five times out of 480 total keypads across all participants). In these cases, we interpolated the number of mental calculation steps using the nearest-neighbor method). In the Easy and Difficult tasks, participants were instructed to enter the value of their current mental calculation (Fig. 1A). In the Control task, participants were instructed to enter any number they wanted to. Participants’ eye position was calibrated at the beginning of the experimental session, and re-calibrated after each break. We used custom code and the Psychophysics Toolbox (Brainard, 1997; Pelli, 1997; Kleiner et al., 2007) to generate/display visual stimuli. For one participant, the pupil was lost during the fourth block

of the experiment. This amounted to a total of three trials Selleckchem SB431542 (one Control, one Easy and one Difficult) of 3 min each. For this participant, we replaced the missing microsaccade rate, microsaccade

magnitude and microsaccade peak velocity values with the average values from the corresponding conditions in the other five blocks (Roth, 1994). In the Easy task, a correct answer was defined as any even number that was higher than the starting number, or the previously entered number on the keypad. In Amino acid the Difficult task, a correct answer was defined as any number that was smaller than the starting number or the previously entered number on the keypad and divisible by 17 after subtraction from the trial’s starting number. If a subject produced an incorrect answer, we reset the starting number to the value of the incorrect answer, so as to assess the correctness of subsequent counting within the same trial. Correct answers and number of iterative calculations during the trial indicated performance in both mental arithmetic tasks. There was a maximum of four correct answers per trial. We imposed a minimum performance criterion, requiring an average of at least one correct numeric answer per trial in the Difficult task (that is, a minimum of six out of 24 correct answers throughout the experimental session; the Easy task generated virtually no incorrect answers). One participant failed to meet this requirement and was discarded.

Samples were pelleted and resuspended in Laemmli buffer containin

Samples were pelleted and resuspended in Laemmli buffer containing 5% 2-mercaptoethanol and stored at −20 °C. Proteins were separated on 4–20% Tris–HCl SDS-PAGE TGX gels in running

buffer (25 mM Tris base, 192 mM glycine, 10% SDS). Frozen lysates were boiled for 5 min and held on ice for 5 min before use. The RC DC Protein Assay was performed to equalize the amount of total protein loaded in each lane. All protein supplies were obtained from Bio-Rad unless otherwise stated. Proteins were transferred to an Immun-Blot PVDF membrane using a Trans-Blot apparatus. The membrane was blocked overnight at 4 °C in 0.05% Tween 20 in Tris-buffered saline (TBS) containing 5% nonfat dry milk on a Belly Dancer. Primary antibodies used at 1 : 10 000 dilutions were either an antipeptide find protocol antibodies directed against amino acids 5–19 of UmuDAb or polyclonal antibody prepared by GenScript by injection of purified UmuDAb HDAC inhibitor (produced by GenScript) into rabbits and purified by protein A chromatography. Goat anti-rabbit HRP-conjugated secondary antibody was used at a dilution of 1 : 32 000. All antibody incubations were carried out for 1 h in 0.05% TBS Tween 20

in 2.5% milk on a Belly Dancer. Precision StrepTactin-HRP Conjugate was added with the secondary antibody to visualize the protein size marker (Precision Plus Protein WesternC Standards). The membrane was washed five times (10 min each) with 0.01% TBS Tween 20 after each antibody incubation. SuperSignal West Pico chemiluminescent substrate (Pierce) was used to visualize

proteins after exposure to X-ray film. UmuDAb expression and cleavage was investigated after transforming E. coli AB1157 wild-type and mutant cells with plasmids bearing various umuDAb alleles. This allowed us to test the effects of recA and umuD mutations on UmuDAb cleavage in a context of the otherwise intact and well-studied DNA damage response of E. coli. Escherichia coli cells were exposed to DNA-damaging agents, and immunoblot analyses of cell lysates were performed with anti-UmuDAb peptide or polyclonal antibodies. To test whether the umuDAb ORF truly encoded an extra-large UmuDAb protein, plasmid pJH1, which contains 2.2 kbp of DNA from ADP1, including umuDAb in its native chromosomal context, was used as a UmuDAb expression source. This approach was feasible Selleckchem Metformin because Acinetobacter promoters are typically highly expressed in E. coli (Shanley et al., 1986). Lysates from E. coli wild-type and ΔumuD cells, carrying pJH1 but not treated with MMC, expressed a c. 24-kDa protein (Fig. 2), consistent with the predicted molecular weight of 23.4 kDa, and demonstrating that the protein encoded by umuDAb was indeed larger than the 15-kDa UmuD (Kitagawa et al., 1985). This protein was not expressed in cells containing only the pUC19 vector of pJH1. This UmuDAb expression in uninduced E. coli may be due to the lack of an E.