Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 89: 1031″
“Study Design. Retrospective investigation of muscle changes selleck products in patients suffering from chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD).
Objectives. To quantitatively compare the presence of muscle alterations (fatty infiltrate [MFI] and cross-sectional area [CSA]) in the anterior musculature
of the cervical spine in a cohort of chronic whiplash patients (WAD II) and healthy control subjects across muscle and cervical segmental level.
Summary of Background Data. Magnetic resonance imaging can be regarded as the gold standard for muscle imaging. There is little knowledge about in vivo features of anterior neck muscles in patients suffering from chronic WAD and how muscle structure differs across the factors of muscle, vertebral level, age, self-reported pain and disability, body mass index, and duration of symptoms.
Methods. click here Reliable magnetic resonance imaging measures for MFI and CSA were performed for the anterior cervical muscles bilaterally in 109 female subjects (78 WAD, 31 healthy control; 18-45 years, 3 months to 3 years postinjury). The measures were performed on all subjects for the longus capitis and colli and the sternocleidomastoid
Results. The WAD subjects had significantly larger MFI and CSA for the anterior muscles compared to healthy control subjects (all P < 0.0001). In addition, the amount of MFI varied by both cervical level and muscle, with the longus
capitis/colli having the largest amount of fatty infiltrates at the C2-C3 level (P < 0.0001). MFI was inversely related to age, self-reported pain/disability, and body mass index but directly proportional to duration of symptoms.
Conclusion. There is significantly greater MFI and CSA in the anterior neck muscles, especially in the deeper longus capitis/colli muscles, in subjects with chronic WAD when compared to healthy controls. Future studies are required to investigate the relationships between muscular morphometry and symptoms in patients suffering from acute and chronic WAD.”
“In this study, styrene maleic anhydride copolymer (SMA2000, JAK inhibitor Styrene : Maleic Anhydride 2 : 1) is grafted and/or crosslinked with epoxidized methyl oleate, epoxidized soybean oil, methyl ricinoleate (MR), castor oil (CO), and soybean oil diglyceride. Base catalyzed epoxy-anhydride and alcohol-anhydride polyesters were synthesized by using the anhydride on SMA, the epoxy or secondary alcohol groups on the triglyceride based monomers. The characterizations of the products were done by DMA, TGA, and IR spectroscopy. SMA-epoxidized soy oil and SMA-CO polymers are crosslinked rigid infusible polymers. SMA-epoxidized soy oil and SMA-CO slioxved T(g)’s at 70 and 66 degrees C, respectively. Dynamic moduli of the two polymers were 11.73 and 3.34 Mpa respectively.