e , posttest), and six months posttest Intention-to-treat analys

e., posttest), and six months posttest. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no statistically (P bigger than 0.05) or clinically significant improvement in global health status/QOL, functioning, or symptoms in either group. The experimental group had 45.8% fewer sense-related (smell and taste) problems (P smaller than 0.05) but 98.6% more

click here speech-related problems (P smaller than 0.05) than the control group after the Qigong intervention. Qigong training resulted in no apparent improvement in health-related QOL, functionality, or cancer-related symptoms in cancer-free survivors of NPC, except for a possible reduction in smell-and taste-related problems.”
“The aim of the present study was to reveal the contribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene and the progression of venous thromboembolism (VTE). A case-control study composed of 246 VTE patients, including 160 from the Han population (76 males and 84 females, mean age 57.41 +/- 13.25 years), 86 from the Uyghur population (41 males and 45 females, mean age 51.61 +/- 13.73 years) and 292 gender and ethnicity-matched control participants, including 170 from the Han population (91 males and 79 females, mean age 55.82 +/- 11.83 years) and 122 from the Uyghur population (64 males and 58 females, www.selleckchem.com/products/gsk923295.html mean age

53.52 +/- 13.64 years) were enrolled in the present study. The results demonstrated that the serum levels of IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer, fibrinogen, plasminogen activator Vorinostat chemical structure inhibitor-1 and leptin were significantly higher in the VTE group compared with the control group (P smaller than 0.05). The frequencies of the -572C/G promoter polymorphisms of the IL-6 genotypes CC, CG and GG were identified to be 34, 48 and 18% in the Han population and 33, 47 and 20% in the Uyghur population,

respectively. The allele frequency distributions of the C and G alleles were 58 and 42% in the Han population and 56 and 43% in the Uyghur population, respectively. Significant differences were identified in the -572C/G promoter polymorphisms between the VTE group and the control group (P smaller than 0.05). For the -597G/A polymorphism, all individuals carried the GG and GA genotype; AA genotypes were not detected. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors for VTE, adjusting by confounding factors, the results of which demonstrated that the CC homozygote of the IL-6 -572G/C, CRP, IL-6 and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were independent risk factors of VTE (P smaller than 0.05). In conclusion, the -572G/C genotype of IL-6 may be a genetic marker of VTE in the Han and Uyghur populations.

Design: Descriptive design to evaluate the feasibility of a c

\n\nDesign: Descriptive design to evaluate the feasibility of a clinical innovation.\n\nSetting: The ED of an urban tertiary care children’s hospital.\n\nParticipants: Adolescents from 14 to 18 years of age, without acute or critical this website injuries or illness, presenting with nonpsychiatric symptoms.\n\nIntervention: The ED clinical staff initiated the use of the BHS-ED system, which identifies

and assesses adolescents for depression, suicidal ideation, posttraumatic stress, substance use, and exposure to violence. Treating clinicians reviewed results and followed routine care practices thereafter.\n\nMain Outcome Measures: Adoption rate of the BHS-ED system by nursing staff, identification rates of occult psychiatric problems,

and social worker or psychiatrist assessment. Data were collected for 19 months before implementation of the BHS-ED system and for 9 months during implementation.\n\nResults: Of 3979 eligible patients, 1327 (33.4%) were asked by clinical staff to get screened using the BHS-ED; of these 1327 patients, 857 (64.6%) completed the screening and 470 (35.4%) refused. During implementation, identification of FG-4592 cost adolescents with psychiatric problems increased significantly (4.2% vs 2.5%; odds ratio [OR], 1.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38-2.10), as did ED assessments by a social worker or psychiatrist (2.5% vs 1.7%; OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.13-1.90). Of the 857 patients who were screened with the BHS-ED, 90 (10.5%) were identified as having psychiatric problems (OR, 4.58; 95% CI, 3.53-5.94), and 71 (8.3%) were assessed

(OR, 5.12; 95% CI, 3.80-6.88).\n\nConclusions: In a busy pediatric ED, computerized, self-administered adolescent behavioral health screening can be incorporated into routine clinical practice. This can lead to small but significant increases in the identification of unrecognized psychiatric problems.”
“The relation selleck compound of the daily doses of erythemal UV at Uccle with total solar irradiation, total ozone column and the aerosol optical depth in the UV are investigated together with trends in these atmospheric parameters for the period 1990 to March 2007. It is shown that the trend in UV radiation is negative in January, August and December and positive the rest of the year. The correlations with total solar radiation, total ozone and aerosol optical depth at 320 nm are in the range of 0.90 to 0.99, -0.2 to -0.5 and -0.0 to -0.3, respectively. However the UV daily dose changes with up to 1.5% for a 1% change in total solar radiation, with -0.8% for a 1% change in aerosol optical depth and with only -0.1% for a 1% change in ozone, indicating the importance, on the short time-scale, of changes in aerosol properties for the UV irradiance reaching the surface.

Materials and Methods: In-house seasonal and pandemic influenza-s

Materials and Methods: In-house seasonal and pandemic influenza-specific

polymerase chain reaction assays were introduced and/or developed at the Molecular Diagnosis Centre (MDC) at the National University Hospital (NUH), Singapore. These assays have been used to test all samples received from in-patients, out-patients, staff and visitors for suspected pandemic influenza A/H1N1/2009 infection. Results: Prior to the arrival of the pandemic A/H1N1/2009 virus in Singapore at the end of May 2009, seasonal influenza A/H3N2 predominated in this population, with very little seasonal influenza A/H1N1 and B viruses detected. Within about 1 month of its arrival in Singapore (mainly during June to July 2009), this buy SB202190 pandemic virus rapidly displaced seasonal influenza A/H3N2 to become the predominant strain in the Singaporean population served by MDC/NUH. Conclusions: Real-time molecular techniques have allowed the prompt

detection of different influenza subtypes during this current pandemic, which has revealed the displacement/replacement of previously circulating seasonal subtypes with A/H1N1/2009. Although some of this may be explained by immunological cross-reactivity between influenza subtypes, more studies are required. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2010;39:291-4″
“Chordoma is a neoplasm of notochordal differentiation that typically occurs in the axial skeleton. Accurate diagnosis is therapeutically www.selleckchem.com/products/AG-014699.html important but can be challenging, especially in fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy (CNB). Immunohistochemistry for the transcription factor brachyury (T) has recently proven diagnostically useful in whole-tissue sections. Omipalisib Our aim was to compare brachyury performance with conventional markers (S-100, EMA, keratin) and to evaluate its utility in distinguishing chordoma from cytomorphologic mimics. Brachyury

immunohistochemistry was performed on chordoma (8 FNA, 12 CNB), chondrosarcoma (10 FNA), and metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma (12 FNA). Immunohistochemistry performed at the time of diagnosis was also reviewed. Brachyury was positive in 17 (85%) cases of chordoma and typically showed moderate-to-strong nuclear staining. Of five sets of concurrent FNA and CNB, four pairs were positive for brachyury in both samples and one pair was positive for brachyury in the CNB and negative in the cell block. S-100, EMA, and keratin stains were available for 13 chordomas: 9 (69%) cases (including the 3 negative for brachyury) were positive for S-100 and keratin or EMA; 4 cases were keratin positive but S-100 negative. No nuclear brachyury staining was seen in chondrosarcoma or adenocarcinoma, though two adenocarcinomas showed cytoplasmic staining. Brachyury separates chordoma from cytomorphologic mimics with high sensitivity and specificity in small biopsies. As a single test, brachyury has higher sensitivity than a combined panel of S-100 and epithelial markers.

Blood pressure, heart rate, respiration rate, and arterial blood

Blood pressure, heart rate, respiration rate, and arterial blood oxygen

saturation (SpO(2)) were monitored, and adverse effects reported by patients or noted by clinicians were recorded at the same times. Study end points included total opioid consumption (infusion + boluses), demand:delivery ratio, and use of rescue medication.\n\nResults: One hundred twenty patients (63 men, 57 women; age range, 21-80 years; weight range, 40-120 kg) were included in the study. Seventy-four percent had other mild, treated diseases (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical class 2). Pain visual analog scale ratings were comparably high in all groups during the first 2 postoperative hours. Pain intensity ratings at 3 to 12 hours were significantly lower in those

selleck compound who received selleck kinase inhibitor BUP-i + BUP-b compared with the other treatment groups (P = 0.018). The drug requirement during the postoperative period decreased significantly in all groups (P = 0.01); however, there was a significant difference between groups in the demand:delivery ratio at 3 to 1.2 hours (group * drug interaction, P = 0.026). The numerically lowest demand:delivery ratio was seen with BUP-i + BUP-b. BUP-i was associated with a significantly lower heart rate compared with the other groups (P = 0.027); there were no drug-related differences in respiration rate, SpO(2), or sedation. Patients’ level of satisfaction with treatment was significantly higher in the group that received BUP-i + BUP-b compared with the other 3 groups (P < GSK2879552 mouse 0.001). Postoperative nausea and vomiting were mild and occurred at a similar incidence in all groups, as did rescue diclofenac use.\n\nConclusions: In these patients undergoing abdominal surgery, the BUP-i + BUP-b regimen controlled postoperative pain as well as did MO-i + MO-b or the combinations of BUP and MO. BUP neither inhibited the analgesia provided by MO nor induced

undesired sedation or hemodynamic or respiratory effects. (Clin Ther. 2009;31:527-541) (C) 2009 Excerpta Medica Inc.”
“Serotonin(4) (5-HT(4)) receptors have been shown to be involved in several peripheral and central functions, including control of the gastro-intestinal tract, modulation of memory and food intake, as well as positive regulation of the release of various neurotransmitters. Recently, we have proposed that the study of these receptors may also bring a new hope for treating depression, their agonists possibly acting as fast-acting antidepressants. This hypothesis was based on several studies showing that 5-HT(4) receptors play an important role in the modulation of central 5-HT neurotransmission, both at pre- and postsynaptic levels.

We predicted that a pH decrease by addition of a pulse of acid wo

We predicted that a pH decrease by addition of a pulse of acid would reduce microbial community diversity and temporarily reduce

PP2 clinical trial reactor function in terms of cellulose degradation. However, 16S rDNA gene pyrosequencing results revealed increased alpha diversity in the microbial community after the perturbation, and a persistence of the dominant community members over the duration of the experiment. Proteomics results showed a decrease in activity of proteins associated with Fibrobacter succinogenes 2 days after the perturbation followed by increased protein abundances 6 days after the perturbation. The decrease in cellulolytic activity suggested by the proteomics was confirmed by the accumulation of Avicel in the reactor. Metabolomics showed a pattern similar to that of the proteome, with amino acid production decreasing 2 days after the perturbation and increasing after 6 days. This study demonstrated that community ‘omics data provide valuable information about the interactions and function of anaerobic cellulolytic community members after a perturbation.”
“The current study evaluated the effect of different anxiety states on information processing as measured by an electroencephalography (EEG) using emotional stimuli on

a smartphone. Twenty-three healthy subjects were assessed for their anxiety states this website using The State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and divided into two groups: low anxiety (I, II) or high anxiety (III and IV, V). An EEG was performed while the participant was presented with emotionally laden audiovisual stimuli (resting, pleasant, and unpleasant sessions) and emotionally laden sentence stimuli (pleasant sentence, unpleasant sentence sessions) and EEG data was analyzed using propagation speed analysis. The propagation speed of the low anxiety group at the medial coronal for resting stimuli for all time segments was higher than

those of high anxiety group. The low anxiety group propagation speeds at the medial sagittal for unpleasant stimuli in the 0-30 and 60-150 s time frames were higher than those of high anxiety group. The propagation speeds at 150 s for all stimuli in the low anxiety group were significantly higher than the correspondent propagation speeds of the high anxiety group. These events suggest that neural information processes concerning emotional stimuli differ based Adavosertib manufacturer on current anxiety state.”
“Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) have been recently used in transplant therapy. The proliferation and migration of MSCs are the determinants of the efficiency of MSC transplant therapy. Sertoli cells are a kind of “nurse” cells that support the development of sperm cells. Recent studies show that Sertoli cells promote proliferation of endothelial cells and neural stem cells in co-culture. We hypothesized that co-culture of UCMSCs with Sertoli cells may also promote proliferation and migration of UCMSCs.

However, the use of cortical signals to

However, the use of cortical signals to Selisistat inhibitor control a multi-jointed prosthetic device for direct real-time interaction with the physical environment (‘embodiment’) has not been demonstrated. Here we describe a system that permits embodied prosthetic control; we show how monkeys (Macaca mulatta) use their motor cortical activity to control a mechanized arm replica in a self-feeding task. In addition to the three dimensions of movement, the subjects’ cortical signals also proportionally controlled a gripper on the end of the arm. Owing to the physical interaction between the monkey, the robotic arm and objects in the workspace, this new task presented a higher level of difficulty than previous

virtual (cursor-control) experiments. Apart from an example of simple one-dimensional control(23), previous experiments have lacked physical interaction even in cases where a robotic arm(16,19,24) or hand(20)

was included in the control loop, because the subjects did not use it to interact with physical objects – an interaction that cannot be fully simulated. Selleckchem CYT387 This demonstration of multi-degree-of-freedom embodied prosthetic control paves the way towards the development of dexterous prosthetic devices that could ultimately achieve arm and hand function at a near-natural level.”
“The risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) depends on both genetic factors and lifestyle-related factors. Chemoprevention’s true contribution is dependent on lifetime CRC risk. There are clinical situations where chemoprevention for CRC is undoubtedly useful. There are other situations where the risk of CRC seems to be only moderately increased and in these situations, the true contribution of chemoprevention is questionable. A few specific studies assessing the effect of chemopreventive agents in these situations are available. In the present article, we will try to better define these particular situations and discuss the risk quantification and the expected MI-503 order chemoprevention contribution. (C) Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved”
“Aims: Respondent-driven sampling

is a research technique, new to the Scandinavian setting, used in hard-to-reach populations, such as subjects at risk for HIV, including drug users. This study aimed to evaluate the use of respondent-driven sampling originating from syringe exchange clients, as a method to identify ‘hidden’ drug users without treatment or social service contact. Methods: Nine heroin and amphetamine injectors were recruited as ‘seeds’ and instructed to recruit up to three heavy drug users in a chain-referral process. Recruited clients were interviewed about drug use, social conditions and contacts with treatment, syringe exchange and other authorities. In order to estimate whether the recruitment managed to evolve into groups of ‘hidden’ drug users, clients included beyond the fourth wave of chain-referral were compared with seeds (wave 0) and clients recruited in waves 1-3.

Compared with the DC group, the percentages of interleukin-17F an

Compared with the DC group, the percentages of interleukin-17F and interferon-gamma in blood and transcription factors, T-bet and RAR-related orphan receptor-gamma t, gene expressions in mesenteric lymph nodes were lower, whereas blood Foxp3 was higher in the DG group. Also, DG group had lower colon injury score. These results suggest that Gln administration suppressed Th1/Th17 and Th-associated cytokine expressions and upregulated the expression of Tregs, which may modulate the balance of Th/Treg and reduce inflammatory reactions

in DSS-induced colitis.”
“ObjectiveThe objectives of the present study were analyze specific comorbidities associated with survival and actual causes of death for patients with small renal masses, and to suggest a

simplified measure associated Selleckchem AZD9291 with decreased overall survival specific to this population. MethodsThe Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database (1995-2007) was queried to identify patients with localized T1a kidney cancer undergoing partial nephrectomy, radical nephrectomy or deferring therapy. We explored independent associations of specific comorbidities with causes of death, and developed a simplified cardiovascular index. Cox proportional hazards, and Fine and Gray competing risks regression were used. ResultsOf 7177 Medicare beneficiaries in the study population, 754 (10.5%) deferred therapy, 1849 (25.8%) underwent partial nephrectomy and 4574 (63.7%) underwent radical nephrectomy with none of the selected comorbidities identified in 3682 (51.3%) patients. Congestive heart failure, click here buy BIBF 1120 chronic kidney disease, peripheral vascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes and cerebrovascular disease were associated with decreased overall survival.

The cardiovascular index provided good survival risk stratification, and reclassified 1427 (41%) patients with a score 1 on the Charlson Comorbidity Index to a 0 on the cardiovascular index with minimal concession of 5-year survival. ConclusionsCongestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, peripheral vascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes and cerebrovascular disease were associated with decreased overall survival among Medicare beneficiaries with small renal masses. The cardiovascular index could serve as a clinically useful prognostic aid when advising older patients that are borderline candidates for surgery or active surveillance.”
“Muscle contraction is normally mediated by the release of neurotransmitters from motor neurons. Here we demonstrate that protons can act as a direct transmitter from intestinal cells to stimulate muscle contraction. During the C. elegans defecation motor program the posterior body muscles contract even in the absence of neuronal inputs or vesicular neurotransmission.

(C) 2011 Elsevier B V All rights reserved “
“Aims:The p

(C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Aims:\n\nThe pathological and clinical significance of aberrant miRNA expression in ovarian tumours has yet to be adequately documented. The aim of this study was to assess the differences in miRNA expression of human ovarian tumours according to histological subtype, and to determine whether miRNAs are potential diagnostic and prognostic markers in ovarian cancers.\n\nMethod and results:\n\nThe

miRNA expression profiles of 103 human ovarian tumours were evaluated. Via a bead-based miRNA microarray, five aberrant miRNAs were selected which were expressed differentially in malignant serous tumours from borderline and benign Nirogacestat ovarian tumours, including miRNA (miR)-519a, miR-18b (up-regulation) and miR-153, miR-511 and miR-485-5p (down-regulation). We conducted quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase

chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in order to confirm that these miRNAs LY2606368 cell line are differentially expressed in different histological subtypes of ovarian tumours, and compared the expression profiles of these miRNAs between different clinical subsets. The expression of these miRNAs was correlated with clinicopathological parameters. miR-519a, miR-153 and miR-485-5p were differentially expressed in four major histotypes of ovarian cancers (P < 0.05), which suggests that they might be of potential importance as diagnostic biomarkers. Down-regulation of miR-153 and miR-485-5p was correlated significantly with FIGO grade 3 (P < 0.05). Down-regulation of miR-153 and up-regulation of miR-519a were correlated significantly with advanced clinical stage (P < 0.05). The results of Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that the higher expression of miR-519a in late stage serous carcinoma LY2835219 was associated significantly with poor progression-free survival (P = 0.0058).\n\nConclusions:\n\nA significant correlation was detected between the deregulation of specific

types of miRNAs, such as miR-519a, miR-153 and miR-485-5p, and clinical variables as well as histological subtypes in ovarian cancers. Hence, these miRNAs may perform functions as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers.”
“Cyclotides are bioactive, stable mini-proteins produced in high amounts in Violaceae and Rubiaceae with promising pharmaceutical and agrochemical applications. Environmental issues must be addressed before large-scale plant cultivation of cyclotides for pharmaceutical or pesticidal purposes can commence. The objective of the present study was to investigate sorption of the cyclotide kalata B2 (kB2), because knowledge of cyclotide biogeochemistry will aid our understanding of environmental fate. The octanol-water partitioning coefficient was determined to be 2.8 +/- 0.6 (log K(OW) = 0.4 +/- 0.1). Sorption of kB2 by montmorillonite, goethite, and humic acid was investigated at different concentrations and under varying acidity and reached equilibrium within minutes.

For the majority of vaccine researchers this information is not r

For the majority of vaccine researchers this information is not readily available, nor is access to well-characterized adjuvants. In this minireview, we outline the current state of adjuvant research and development as it pertains to effective malaria vaccines.”
“In the title compound, C(10)H(8)N(2)O(5),

the molecule is slightly distorted from planarity. The molecular structure is stabilized by two Fer-1 in vitro intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The first is a short O-H center dot center dot center dot O hydrogen bond (H center dot center dot center dot O distance = 1.57 angstrom) within the maleamic acid unit and the second is a C-H center dot center dot center dot O hydrogen bond (H center dot center dot center dot O distance = 2.24 angstrom) which connects the amide group with the benzene ring. The nitro group is twisted by 6.2 (2)degrees

out of the plane of the benzene ring. The crystal structure manifests a variety of hydrogen bonding. The packing is dominated by a strong intermolecular N-H center dot center dot center dot O interaction which links the molecules into chains running along the b axis. The chains within a plane are further assembled by three additional types of intermolecular C-H center dot center dot center dot O hydrogen bonds to form a sheet parallel to the ((1) over bar 01) plane.”
“African trypanosomosis is a potentially fatal disease https://www.selleckchem.com/products/MLN-2238.html that is caused by extracellular parasitic protists known as African trypanosomes. These parasites inhabit the blood stream of their mammalian hosts and produce a number of pathological features, amongst which is anemia. Etiology of the anemia has been partly attributed to an autoimmunity-like

mediated erythrophagocytosis of de-sialylated red blood cells (dsRBCs) by macrophages. Lactose infusion PCI-34051 nmr to infected animals has proven effective at delaying progression of the anemia. However, the mechanism of this anemia prevention is yet to be well characterized. Here, the hypothesis of a likely induced further modification of the dsRBCs was investigated. RBC membrane galactose (RBC m-GAL) and packed cell volume (PCV) were measured during the course of experimental trypanosomosis in mice infected with Trypanosoma congolense (stb 212). Intriguingly, while the membrane galactose on the RBCs of infected and lactose-treated mice (group D) decreased as a function of parasitemia, that of the lactose-untreated infected group (group C) remained relatively constant, as was recorded for the uninfected lactose-treated control (group B) animals. At the peak of infection, the respective cumulative percent decrease in PCV and membrane galactose were 30 and 185 for group D, and 84 and 13 for group C.

In the future, it should be possible to construct improved diagno

In the future, it should be possible to construct improved diagnostic instruments that objectively incorporate

DILI signatures, data-based estimates of the incidence rates of DILI from each implicated drug, and perhaps genetic variants associated with the risk of DILI. (C) 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“The high mobility group AT-hook (HMGA) proteins, a family of DNA architectural factors, are highly expressed during embryogenesis and play a crucial role in several different biological processes, as well as in tumorigenesis of a wide range of tissues, including pituitary. Indeed, HMGA2 has been found rearranged and amplified in human prolactinomas, and transgenic mice overexpressing either Hmga1 or Hmga2 develop pituitary adenomas secreting prolactin and growth hormone.\n\nHere, we overview HMGA proteins in human tumours, focusing on pituitary adenomas and the mechanisms by which the HMGA proteins Metabolism inhibitor are involved in their onset and development. Different HMGA-dependent potential drives of pituitary oncogenesis are discussed as future research directions in the field. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Steroidogenic

Selleckchem VS-4718 acute regulatory protein (StAR) mediates the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of steroid hormones, essential to fetal development. We have reported that the StAR expression in fetal adrenal is inhibited in a rat model of nicotine-induced intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Here using primary human fetal adrenal cortex (pHFAC) cells and a human fetal adrenal cell line NCI-H295A, we show that nicotine inhibits StAR expression and cortisol production in a dose- and time-dependent

manner, and prolongs the inhibitory effect on cells proliferating over 5 passages after termination of nicotine treatment. Methylation detection within the StAR promoter region uncovers a single site CpG methylation at nt -377 that is sensitive to nicotine treatment. Nicotine-induced alterations in frequency of this point methylation correlates well with the levels of StAR expression, suggesting an important role of the single CAL-101 nmr site in regulating StAR expression. Further studies using bioinformatics analysis and siRNA approach reveal that the single CpG site is part of the Pax6 binding motif (CGCCTGA) in the StAR promoter. The luciferase activity assays validate that Pax6 increases StAR gene expression by binding to the glucagon G3-like motif (CGCCTGA) and methylation of this site blocks Pax6 binding and thus suppresses StAR expression. These data identify a nicotine-sensitive CpG site at the Pax6 binding motif in the StAR promoter that may play a central role in regulating StAR expression. The results suggest an epigenetic mechanism that may explain how nicotine contributes to onset of adult diseases or disorders such as metabolic syndrome via fetal programming. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.