Therefore, this bacterium consumed energy to produce heat without producing additional biomass at 30°C. These results suggest that this increase in thermogenesis was caused by a growth-independent reaction. The energy-spilling reactions of some bacteria occur under conditions of limited nitrogen and an excess energy source [9–12]. P. putida TK1401 produced excess heat when it was incubated at a temperature lower than its optimal growth temperature. When this bacterium was incubated at 30°C, the heat production increased as the concentration of nutrient increased. Under these conditions,
there were sufficient amounts of nutrients for its growth, although this temperature limited the growth of this bacterium. Thus, the energy-spilling reaction of P. putida TK1401 may be induced under temperature-limiting Selleckchem SB203580 conditions. An increase in colony temperature
was only observed between 27°C and 31°C, which are suboptimal growth temperatures for P. putida TK1401. At temperatures less than 27°C, the colony temperatures and heat production of this bacterium did not increase. The enzymes that are related to heat production may have been induced at incubation temperatures between 27°C and 31°C or the specific activities of these enzymes may have been too low to affect the colony temperature and the amount of heat production at temperatures less than 27°C. Energy-spilling reactions are mediated by futile cycles. Some mechanisms involving futile cycles
have been proposed for bacteria, learn more including (1) futile cycles of enzymes involved in phosphorylation and dephosphorylation  and (2) futile cycles of membrane transfer, such as potassium ions, ammonium ions, and protons [22–24]. The mechanism of a futile cycle that mediates the heat production by Thiamine-diphosphate kinase P. putida TK1401 is unknown. The previously reported energy-spilling reactions of bacteria were activated under nutrient-limited and excess energy source conditions. The heat production by P. putida TK1401 increased under nutrient-rich conditions. Thus, the futile cycle of P. putida TK1401 could be related to nitrogen availability such as through the urea cycle. Conclusion We measured the colony temperatures of soil bacteria using thermography and found that the temperatures of some colonies were higher or lower than that of the surrounding medium. The selleck chemical bacterial isolate with the highest colony temperature, KT1401, was identified as Pseudomonas putida. The colony temperature of P. putida KT1401 increased when isolates of this bacterium were grown at a suboptimal growth temperature. Heat production by this bacterium increased without the production of additional biomass at a suboptimal growth temperature. Therefore, P. putida KT1401 may convert energy into heat by an energy-spilling reaction when the incubation temperature limits its growth. Acknowledgments We thank Prof. K. Koga of Tokai University for his help with microcalorimetric analyses.