ZnO, a II-VI semiconductor, is now recognized as a promising candidate for blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes or laser diodes due to its wide bandgap of 3.37 eV and large exciton binding energy of 60 meV [12–17]. Its large exciton binding energy allows excitonic absorption and recombination even at room temperature, which makes this material appealing . A lot of GSK1838705A cost Methods have been extensively used for oriented ZnO film synthesis, including laser molecular beam epitaxy, pulsed laser deposition, metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, sputtering , cathodic magnetron sputtering and reactive electron beam CCI-779 clinical trial evaporation,
spray pyrolysis, and electrodeposition. However, sol-gel processes are particularly adapted to GNS-1480 manufacturer produce ZnO colloids and films in a simple, low-cost, and highly controlled way. The sol-gel process, also called soft chemistry (‘chimie douce’), allows elaboration of a solid material from a solution by using a sol or a gel as an intermediate step and at much lower temperatures than is possible by traditional methods of preparation . It enables the powderless processing of glasses, ceramics, and thin films or fibers
directly from a solution. The synthesis of solid materials via chimie douce often involves wet chemistry reactions and sol-gel chemistry based on the transformation of molecular precursors into an oxide network by hydrolysis and condensation reactions [19, 20]. Recently, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) has been used as a hole transporter in combination with ZnO
nanostructures. These devices have an efficiency of approximately 0.5% under standard solar conditions (AM 1.5, 100 mW/cm2) and show a current density of J sc = 2.2 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of V oc Farnesyltransferase = 440 mV, and a fill factor of 0.56. This cell performance can be significantly improved to J sc = 10.0 mA/cm2, V oc = 475 mV, and a fill factor of 0.43, leading to an efficiency of 2% by using a blend of P3HT and (6,6)-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester. The low open-circuit voltage in hybrid solar cells using ZnO as the electrode material is not yet fully understood. Certainly, more investigation is necessary to find the leakage, and then higher cell efficiencies can be expected . In this work, we have investigated the structural, morphological, and optical properties of ZnO nanostructured fibrous film spin coated on indium-tin oxide (ITO) glass. We fabricated polymer solar cells that have the structure of ITO/ZnO/PEDOT:PSS/active layer (P3HT:ICBA)/Al. Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and indene-C60 bisadduct (ICBA) were blended and used as an active layer in polymer bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaic cells. The performance characteristics of polymer photovoltaic cells using ZnO nanostructured fibrous film as a hole-conducting layer have been investigated. Methods Materials ITO thin films are a highly degenerate n-type semiconductor which have a low electrical resistivity of 2 to 4 × 10−4 Ω cm.